Tetrahedron Cube Octahedron Dodecahedron Icosahedron
Four faces Six faces Eight faces Twelve faces Twenty faces
Polyhedron Vertices Edges Faces Schläfli symbol Vertex configuration
tetrahedron Tetrahedron 4 6 4 {3, 3} 3.3.3
cube Hexahedron (cube) 8 12 6 {4, 3} 4.4.4
octahedron Octahedron 6 12 8 {3, 4}
dodecahedron Dodecahedron 20 30 12 {5, 3} 5.5.5
icosahedron Icosahedron 12 30 20 {3, 5}

Cartesian coordinates[edit]

For Platonic solids centered at the origin, simple Cartesian coordinates are given below. The Greek letter φ is used to represent the golden ratio 1 + √5/2.

Cartesian coordinates
Figure Tetrahedron Octahedron Cube Icosahedron Dodecahedron
Faces 4 8 6 20 12
Vertices 4 6 (2 × 3) 8 12 (4 × 3) 20 (8 + 4 × 3)
1 2 1 2 1 2
Coordinates (1, 1, 1)
(1, −1, −1)
(−1, 1, −1)
(−1, −1, 1)
(−1, −1, −1)
(−1, 1, 1)
(1, −1, 1)
(1, 1, −1)
(±1, 0, 0)
(0, ±1, 0)
(0, 0, ±1)
(±1, ±1, ±1) (0, ±1, ±φ)
(±1, ±φ, 0)
φ, 0, ±1)
(0, ±φ, ±1)
φ, ±1, 0)
(±1, 0, ±φ)
(±1, ±1, ±1)
(0, ±1/φ, ±φ)
1/φ, ±φ, 0)
φ, 0, ±1/φ)
(±1, ±1, ±1)
(0, ±φ, ±1/φ)
φ, ±1/φ, 0)
1/φ, 0, ±φ)
Image CubeAndStel.svg Dual Cube-Octahedron.svg Icosahedron-golden-rectangles.svg Cube in dodecahedron.png






The three regular tessellations of the plane are closely related to the Platonic solids. Indeed, one can view the Platonic solids as regular tessellations of the sphere. This is done by projecting each solid onto a concentric sphere. The faces project onto regular spherical polygons which exactly cover the sphere. There are three possibilities:

The three regular tilings

Uniform tiling 44-t0.svg


Uniform tiling 63-t2.png


Uniform tiling 63-t0.png

{4, 4}

Vertex type 4-4-4-4.svg

(t=1, e=1)1-uniform n5.svg

{3, 6}

Vertex type 3-3-3-3-3-3.svg

(t=1, e=1)

1-uniform n11.svg

{6, 3)

Vertex type 6-6-6.svg

(t=1, e=1)

1-uniform n1.svg




Polygon nets around a vertex
Defect 180°
Defect 120°
Defect 60°
Defect 0°
Defect 90°
Square tiling vertfig.png
Defect 0°
Pentagon net.png
Defect 36°
Hexagonal tiling vertfig.png
Defect 0°
A vertex needs at least 3 faces, and an angle defect.
A 0° angle defect will fill the Euclidean plane with a regular tiling.
By Descartes’ theorem, the number of vertices is 720°/defect.










Microsoft Small Basic

Mirosoft Small Basic puts the fun back into computer programming. With a friendly development environment that is very easy to master, it eases both kids and adults into the world of programming.

they have a link in the sidebar to a tutorial pdf
only runs on Windows

Zinsser Bulls Eye Shellac

Bulls Eye® Shellac is an alcohol-based solution of lac available in Clear and Amber tones. Bulls Eye® Shellac is easy to use and dries quickly.

Source: Zinsser® Bulls Eye® Shellac Product Page



Bring out the natural beauty of wood grain like no other finish can, with Rust-Oleum® Zinsser® Bulls Eye® Shellac. This finish beautifies wood with a lustrous glow that won’t darken or yellow with age. The spray format is perfect for crafts and small projects.

  • Traditional finish & sealer
  • All-Natural, non-toxic, easy to use
  • Classic finish for wood trim, paneling and furniture
  • Great protective sealer for crafts and household projects
  • Dries lightning fast – can be recoated in under 45 minutes
  • Does not darken or yellow with age
  • Easy clean up with alcohol or ammonia and water

Bulls Eye Shellac

Find great deals for Zinsser Bulls Eye Shellac Based Clear Sealer Spray Wood Timber Furniture Hobbies. Shop with confidence on eBay!

Akua Intaglio Printing Inks

Akua Intaglio Printing Inks have a soy based formulation for unmatched working properties. The ink will not skin in jar or dry on your equipment, and wipes off etching plates cleanly, while plenty of ink remains in grooves. These inks dry through absorption into paper fibers, and once print is dry, ink is permanent. Only easy, safe soap and water clean-up is required.

The 19th century gum bichromate process in 21st century concept and techniques « Gum Bichromates « Formulas And How-To «

Christina Z. Anderson gives us the “why and how” of the gum process, including making negatives.Share this:Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in n…

Source: The 19th century gum bichromate process in 21st century concept and techniques « Gum Bichromates « Formulas And How-To «

Gum printing basics – how to make a gum print (Troutner) « Gum Bichromates « Formulas And How-To «

Seth Troutner got so into making gum, he even made his own gum kit – to help beginners getting started. Here he shows how he makes his prints.Share this:Click to email this to a friend (Open…

Source: Gum printing basics – how to make a gum print (Troutner) « Gum Bichromates « Formulas And How-To «

Painter Paper-textures


cyanotype QUICKIE

NB: forbered blandingerne mindst 24 timer før de skal anvendes.
– Opbevar begge opløsninger i brune lufttætte flasker
– marker flaskerne med navn, dato og blandingsforhold.

Blanding A: Ammoniumjerncitrat
100 ml (50 ml) distilleret vand ~21 °C
20 g (10 g) Ferric ammonium citrate (green)

Blanding B:  blodludssalt, rødt
100 ml (50 ml) distilleret water ~21 °C
8 g ( 4 g) Potassium ferricyanide



Kitchen sink Lithography

Kitchen Lithography:
Rapid, eco-freindly and less-toxic !
Kitchen lithography is fast, and inexpensive.   Most of the materials can be bought for very little and are found in most kitchens. If you have the ink and a press all the better but event  the press is not required.

Material List:
• Reynolds heavy-duty aluminum foil
• Polycarbonate or Plexiglas plate (for stretching the aluminum foil
• Paper Towel (viva is what I uses)
• Tape (for anchoring the aluminum foil)
• 1500 grit waterproof sandpaper (sanding the foil to increase the tooth and surface area)
• White kitchen vinegar (cleaning off prepared foil and making it more receptive)
• Soda/Cola containing phosphoric acid (for etching the plate)
• Korn’s litho crayon (drawing the image)
• Vegetable Oil
• Sponge (for wiping the plate and keeping the plate wet)
• Oil based Etching Ink (graphic chemical ink is what I used)
• Press or Wooden Spoon
• Paper torn to the correct size for the image, any good quality smooth surfaced paper should work (BFK, Stonehenge, Magnani Pescia, ect ) Continue reading


Xerox/Gum Printing

1. Make a fresh xerox

2. You want to make a thin gum solution, so add 1 part gum arabic, 1 part water in a bowl.

3. Coat an area of the plexiglas plate with gum arabic and place the photocopy on top of this area with image facing up. If you have difficulty with wrinkling, lift up the photocopy and re-apply a small amount of gum arabic to plexiglas and lay the paper down in sections wiping it on the top with a sponge dipped in gum arabic to smooth out wrinkles. When the paper is fully adhered give it one final light coat of gum arabic. Be gentle

4. Roll up some oil based ink and roll your brayer over the copy gently. It might roll up with your roller so start from the center and roll to the edges.
The ink should roll smoothly and not be too tacky. You may need to add (linseed or stone-)oil to the right consistency.
Mix only enough ink for one print at a time because it gets contaminated with paper fibres and gum arabic.
Each time you reload the brayer, roll it on newsprint to remove any gum arabic that might be picked up from the photocopy.

I like to give the plate one consistent coat of ink and then remove the ink with a sponge and water. Some artists prefer to apply several very light coats of ink using water and a sponge to remove the ink between each coat. You will have to see what works best for you. Be aware that too many applications of ink followed by water to remove it will eventually break down the photocopy paper which is serving as your plate.

5. You need to keep sponging to remove the excess ink and to keep the copy wet, so sponge, then roll, then sponge, then roll.

6. The toner will appear glossy from ink when it’s ready. Sometimes this is very quick.

7. Once it’s wet, it’s very fragile, so be careful when peeling the inked copy off of the glass. Run this through the press onto paper or fabric under some good pressure. I usually set it on a plexi plate, but you don’t have to.

If you want to start a new print, clean the roller and ink area and any additional ink that might have transferred to your work area or plexiglas plate. Start a new batch of ink. Baby oil or vegetable oil works well to clean up equipment and work areas.

1. Make good quality XEROX photocopies with a heavy, dark-as-possible and well-fused layer of toner. It’s a good idea to make several of the image you want to work with, as they do break down after a few transfers. The best copy machines use dense toner which is fused tightly to the paper; never use ink jet or laser copies

2. Help the xerox copy “age” a bit by placing it face up on a hotplate to “bake” the toner for a few minutes (it stabilizes the toner a wee bit more).

3. Paint a very thin and even coat of Zisser Amber Shellac on the backside of the photocopy; this strengthens the toner and the paper; let it dry. (a sponge brush works well)

4. Use Dan Smith #79 Relief Ink, or G.C.#1796 Litho Ink modified with Setswell; you must significantly reduce the tack and body of the ink or it will lift the toner off the paper.

5. Use a solution of 1/3 gum arabic to 2/3 water. Spread a little solution on a glass or plexi palette; place the photocopy face up on the solution. Pour a little bit more of the solution onto the copy and let it soak in evenly; then reduce to a damp film gently with a soft-hair brush (hake is great) before rolling it up with ink.

6. Roll it up GENTLY with a small soft rubber brayer, being careful to keep the copy damp with the brush (but not wet); sponges tend to abrade paper which then causes the paper to scum badly. If the paper does scum, squeeze a generous amount of the gum/water solution onto the copy; this should dislodge a lot of the scumming ink. If unable to rescue the Xerox, switch to another copy of the same image.

7. When image is charged place inky side face down onto your choice of surface*; you may want to print it directly to paper or offset it to another surface first; either way cover it with fresh wax paper and then newsprint and send it through the press with medium light pressure, or offset by hand pressure with a baren and a bone-folder.

*You can transfer the inky image onto Plexiglas/mylar and work it up like a monotype, or print it directly on to paper (or transfer it to a woodblock/linoleum/copper etching plate/litho stone etc. to be further developed). The image will be strongest when printed directly onto paper, as each transfer process will slightly degrade the clarity and detail of the original image.

Instructions for Gum Printing
The Ink Shop Printmaking Center 2008

Prepare photocopy – cut exactly to size and shape desired.
Mix 2/3 gum arabic to 1/3 water in bowl.
Apply puddle of gum solution to the table with clean sponge.
Place photocopy face up onto the gum solution, and add more solution to the top face.
Make sure paper relaxes, and wrinkles are flattened, by sponging from the center to the edges of the Xerox.
Add straight gum arabic to the top face of the Xerox, gently massaging with your fingers, especially in the white areas.
Wipe away excess gum solution with the clean sponge, cleaning around all sides of the photocopy.
Ink up the brayer with a light layer of lithographic ink (mixed with a dollop of setswell compound).
Using a light touch, roll over the Xerox with the inked brayer, starting from the center and rolling out to the edges (to prevent the Xerox from rolling onto the brayer).
In between roll-ups, gently sponge the surface with water. Re-ink up to a maximum of 2 – 3 passes.
Place dampened paper on the press bed, and place the Xerox image face down on the paper.
Cover with newsprint and press blankets, and print.

add to it, some shellac on the back of the photocopy paper and it just prints and prints – plus then one can make extra large photocopies without the risk of tearing

1 – Apply a thin layer of gum to the xerox and buff off the excess. Allow to dry. It will curl a bit.

2 – Roll up the DRY gummed xerox with ink. This feels wrong from any other litho technique, but it works. The xerox very durable in this state. Apply a thin layer of ink.

3 – Dip rolled up xerox in a bowl of water. This loosens the gum, and the ink siting on top.

4 – Wipe the excess ink and gum from the xerox. Use the corner of your sponge and wipe until all excess ink is removed.

5 – Print.

I find this method allows the xerox to be more durable.

Do not use recycled copy paper because it falls apart.
mix the oil paints with a drop or two of linseed oil until smooth

Hi — this is how we do it at the studio in London to make a lithographic transfer–seems less complicated than the previous suggestions but works generally with a variety of artists’ work.

I. make xerox copy
2. almost immediately( important) spray back of copy with aerosol fixative
3. put copy face down on prepared ( prepasoled) litho plate that is slightlydamped with clean sponge
4 put through press litho or etching with sufficient packing to ensure adhesion of copy to plate ( you may want to run through two or three times depending on firmness of pressure
5 remove copy – there should be a transfer image now on the litho plate – you may wish to stenghten any part at this stage that haven’t appreared ( by using standard litho drawing crayons or tousche) but generally you will find all or most of the image has been transferred
6. gum carefully by using intitally a weak solution of gun arabic dabbed on image – dry
7. gum again using a normal thickness of gum arabic -dry
8. process in the normal way one would a litho plate ( can also be used with marginally less succes on stone)

You should be able to print off up to hundred copies. We have used this methos at Lithostudio and at Curwen Studio in London with a number of artists I recall working with Henry Moore, John Piper and Jim Dine using this method.

John White LithoStudio London

Cyanotype maskeringer

til inspiration – det praktiske er ikke løst endnu

Cyanotype toning: the basics « MP Photography

“No one but a vandal would print a landscape in red, or in cyanotype.” (Peter Henry Emerson: Naturalistic Photography for Students of the Art, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, 1889) Citation courtesy of Luminous Lint/Mike Ware.

I happen to agree with Mr. Emerson so I tone pretty much all of my cyanotypes.  I have several posts about different toners and how they (generally) look, but this post will go over the basic process of toning and try to troubleshoot a few common problems.

Toning a cyanotype involves two basic steps: a bleach phase, and a toning phase.  Every toner I know of contains some type of tannin in it: tannin chemically binds to the iron in the emulsion and changes the color.  If I understand this process correctly, it produces a form of gallic acid – used in dyes and inks, especially medieval ones.  I’ve read that gallic acid is normally corrosive, but I’ve never found this to be the case with toned cyanotypes.

If you’re concerned about the archival quality of your toned cyanotypes, Dr. Mike Ware (inventor of the ”New” cyanotype process) has said that his family photo albums contain what he’s pretty certain are toned cyanotypes – because they look very similar to other alternative processes it’s easy to confuse with Van Dyke prints or Kallitype prints.  I’ve personally never had issues with mine – I’ll get back to you in some 20 years or so and see if that’s still the case.

Keep in mind that toners are funny things – you can mix and match things, you can vary the sequence of bleach and toner and get different results.  I have a lot of good results with simply leaving the prints in the toner for long periods of time without bleaching at all.  Take things one at a time – don’t try to tone or bleach multiple prints together.  Experiment and have fun with it!  Just remember that the key to a successful toned print is to wash well between steps.

1. Toning Preparations:

Before you start your toning, always:

  • Age your prints at least 24 hours for the emulsion to harden.
  • Pre-wet your prints in filtered water to allow the solutions to penetrate the paper fibers evenly.
  • It’s a good idea to have multiple prints – toning is fickle, you never know what you’re going to get.
  • Plan to leave the print face down for long periods of toning, or plan enough time to “babysit” the print – agitate it while face up in the toner.

2. The Bleach Phase:

Bleaching is a tricky thing.  The purpose of bleaching is to help break down the iron a little so that the tannin in the toner can “grab on” easily.  If your water is heavily chlorinated, you may not even need to bleach your prints.

How much you bleach really depends on how you coat, how much emulsion is on the paper, and what toner you’re using.  If you bleach too far, you lose shadow density.  If you bleach too little, your shadows will stay a stubborn blue shade while your highlights cooperate.

Bleach types: the most common form of bleach solution is Sodium Carbonate.  That’s Washing Soda, usually found in your grocery store’s cleaner aisle, or at a photography chemical supply store.   Don’t confuse this with Sodium Bicarbonate – baking soda – it won’t react the same way.

Other types of bleach that I’ve used are Ammonia and regular chlorine bleach.  Ammonia stinks, horribly, and usually produces a browner image.  Chlorinated bleach destroys paper fibers and is better left to your laundry.

My typical bleach solution is about 1-2 teaspoons of Sodium Carbonate combined with 1 Liter of water.  If your print turns a bright purple the second you place it in the solution, it’s too strong.   Play with the solution until you’re comfortable with the rate of bleaching.  As you practice bleaching, you’ll notice that it’s a good idea to yank the print out a few seconds before you think it’s ready – the print will continue to bleach a bit while starting to rinse.

Always rinse the print well in running water between the bleach phase and the toning phase.

3. The Toning Phase:

All cyanotype toners are pretty much variations on a black/brown/purple theme.  Certain toners are more efficient and stain less, while other toners produce a wider range of possible colors.  Keep in mind that all toners will stain your paper base a little despite your best efforts.  (please note that the following links lead to blog post about the toners, or examples of the toner shade.)

Tea toner:  Most tea toners that I use are brewed for about 10 minutes in  25o mL of hot water, then added to a 1.5 Liter of room temperature filtered water.  I use about 8-10 small tea bags, not a very accurate measurement!  Every type of tea has a different quality or color to it – make sure that you use teas with tannin in them like black tea or green tea – white tea, red tea, and most herbal teas don’t have enough tannin to do anything to your print.

Green tea produces an eggplant/black shadow, and is so mild that it doesn’t stain the paper base too badly.  If you’re toning a high key image, green tea will sometimes produce a really cool pink highlight.  It has a tendency to split tone for me because of my double coat of emulsion.

Black tea will stain your paper the most, but it produces a lovely warm black/brown shade that’s nearly impossible to get anywhere else.  I generally use a Lipton tea product for iced tea, but any black tea will work.  If you want an easy split toner with warm highlights and blue shadows, black tea is the fastest way to get it.

Earl Grey tea: avoid this one – it has a lot of oils in it that can damage your print.

Tea toners work really well with a minimum of bleaching, but they do require a longer immersion for the iron to shift.  I normally tone prints in tea for about 2 hours, but depending on the print, it’s taken up to 8 hours.  Some people suggest that tea toners should be hot for a faster toner – in my experience that shaves about 30 minutes off the toning time, and stains the paper much worse.   It’s a good idea to let the print sit in clean filtered water for about 10 minutes before the final rinse to help remove some of the excess tannin.  All tea toners should be used freshly brewed – they lose potency after a day and should not be reused.

Tannic Acid Toner:  This stuff is a royal pain to work with.  It can produce the closest thing to a true black, but it’s far more likely to screw up, or produce a weird purply brown shade.  It has the widest range of color tones that I’ve seen in a toner, but you have absolutely no control over what you get.  Be extremely careful how much bleaching you do, because this toner is totally unforgiving if you go the slightest bit too far.

Done well, this toner produces the least paper staining – however, I’ve run into some chemical issues that I don’t quite understand that leave my paper the shade of cardboard.  (I’ve narrowed it down to interactions with the tap water, or the age of the toner.)

Tannic Acid is produced from wood chips, and is extremely hard to mix into a solution.  It’s a gummy mess.  Because of this it’s difficult to estimate how much I use, but generally about a Tablespoon mixed into a Liter of water is a good place to start (and then remove the gummy bits.)  A good tannic acid solution should be almost clear, and will take a minute of sitting in filtered water to fully tone out.  Toning times for tannic acid are usually quite short.

If mixed with distilled water, tannic acid toner will last for a few weeks/months.  A little mold is normal, just filter the solution every time you use it.  Once the solution starts turning a dark brown or granulating (tiny little granules appear – not sure what they are) it’s time to start fresh.  Tannic acid is also quite expensive, and only available at a photography chemical supply store like Photographer’s Formulary.

Coffea TonerI love coffee toner.  It’s a cold toner, as opposed to the warmer tea shades, and it leaves the paper pretty close to the original color.  It will still stain, just not as badly as tea.  Coffee doesn’t produce a true black, but more of a blue/black like a blackbird’s feathers.  The highlights will stay pretty clean so make sure your contrast is good and your highlights aren’t blown out.

I generally use the cheapest instant coffee I can find – about 4-5 heaping tablespoons of instant coffee dissolved into 250 mL of hot water, then added to 1.5 Liters filtered room temperature water.  I’ve read that other people have great success re-brewing used coffee grounds – since I don’t drink coffee I can’t exactly test this.

Coffee toner doesn’t seem to take quite as long as tea toner, but expect at least an hour of toning, perhaps more.  Again, it’s a good idea to let the print rest in a water bath before the final rinse.

Wine TanninThis is my new favorite toner, and I don’t have that much experience with it yet.  So far, it produces a nice dark shadow and a brown/tan highlight on a fairly regular basis.  It can be rather fickle if you keep the solution for a long period of time, so I suggest storing this toner no more than a month.

Wine tannin is basically the same thing as tannic acid, but produced from a different source.  It’s designed to use in microbrewing so it mixes into solution a lot easier.  It leaves the paper almost paper white, producing almost no staining.  It’s slightly cheaper than tannic acid, but since it requires more to produce the same effect – half an ounce of wine tannin mixed into 1 L of water – the price is probably pretty close.  I use the powdered version, but some stores have a liquid solution available.

Wine tannin has a tendency to put any coating discrepancies on display.  Unless I use the Christopher James variation listed in the link (toss the print into the tannin instead of bleaching first) I lose some of my highlight detail.  Like the tannic acid, it works pretty quickly.  Wine tannin also has a weird chemical reaction that can turn my paper to a cardboard brown, requiring a water bath before the final rinse.


1. My print looks faded!  What happened?  You probably bleached the print too far.  Try test strips in varying times to get a better idea of what works – the ideal is to tone your shadows dark without losing highlight details.  Usually this means bleaching until the shadows are a dark purple and the highlights are slightly yellow.

2. I left the print in the toner forever, but it’s still blue!  What now?  Rinse the print for at least 5 minutes and go back to the bleach bath.  After bleaching again – just a little, rinse it again for 5 minutes and put it back in the toner.  Your initial bleach probably didn’t break the iron down enough.

3. The print toned nicely, but now that it’s dry I hate it!  Why does it look so flat?  I don’t know why, but that’s normal for a toned cyanotype.  Try brushing a diluted solution of acrylic gloss medium onto the print to bring back the shadow depth and give the surface a little shine.  It will look like it did when the print was wet.

4. Why can’t I produce the same results each time?  What am I doing wrong?  Nothing.  That’s a quirk of toning.  If you have a batch of prints that need to look similar, try toning them all at the same time with the same solution.  Otherwise you run the risk of variations that you may or may not like.  If you’re still having issues, stick with the basic tea toner – it’s a little less fickle.

5. My print looks mottled – it didn’t tone evenly.  What’s going on?  If you’re leaving the print in the toner for a long period of time, make sure you place it face down.  Paper floats oddly, and you may end up with “dry” spots that don’t tone evenly.  If you’re toning face up, make sure you agitate the print constantly.

6. My print has a bright blue round spot on it!  Yup, the curse of the air bubble strikes again.  Make sure the print is lying face down – ease the print into the toner slowly and work all the air bubbles out past the far edge.  If you already have the blue spot on it, try a quick rinse, bleach bath, and return the print to the toner for a bit to remove the blue.

7. My shadows are blah.  What happened to my perfect exposure?  Your original shadows need to be a nice, deep, cobalt blue to tone dark.  If your shade of cyanotype isn’t dark enough, it’s not going to tone well.  Read this tutorial and do some experimenting with your paper and your developer first before you try toning again.

Cyanotype toning: the basics « MP Photography.



by Steven Berkowitz

There are three types of chemicals that affect Cyanotype prints.
These chemicals can be used singly.
One approach is the bleach the color out of a dark print.
Another is to intensify the color of a normal print.
A third is to alter the color of a print. And then there are a slew of combinations.

With Silver prints a common practice is to bleach the color out of the silver and then re-develop the print in either Sepia or another Developer. This same technique can be done by combining a bleaching step with a toner step. The most common combo for Cyanotype is Sodium Carbonate and Tannic Acid.
Many of these recipes can be used in either direction, or repeatedly back and forth, each time producing a different tone. And each time you print, different tones may result.

Reducers – act as bleaches, degrading the blue color in the print
Sodium Carbonate, Ammonia, Clorox, TSP, Borax, Dektol …

Intensifiers – deepen the color of the print
Hydrogen Peroxide, Citric Acid, Lemon Juice, Vinegar…

Toners – change the color of the iron in the print
Tannic Acid, Oolong Tea, Wine, Cat Urine, Pyrogallic Acid…

General Considerations:
Overexpose prints to be toned by at least one stop (until the highlights are gray).
Prints should cure at least one day after printing.
Soak the prints in distilled water before you start toning.
Do a final wash for 10 ~ 15 minutes in running water at the end.
Replace the chemicals as soon as they start to get dark (maybe 15 prints per tray).
Always rinse between chemicals to increase toner life by about 5 prints per tray.
Always add chemicals to water, not the other way around.

Recipes :
Yellow – Blue Split Toner  Sodium Carbonate Household Bleach or TSP [reduction]
tray 1 – distilled water – soak for 5 minutes until thoroughly soaked
tray 2 – 1 pinch of Sodium Carbonate in 1 quart distilled water
immerse for less than a minute – the print will begin to degrade if left too long
tray 3 – distilled water
pull the print quickly from the Sodium Carbonate and watch the split
final wash – 10 ~ 15 minutes in running water
note: TSP (Tri sodium Phosphate) commercial cleaner can make a yellow & white print
note: Clorox household bleach can remove Cyanotype completely from parts of a print.

Deep Blue Toner – Hydrogen Peroxide [intensification]
tray 1 – distilled water – soak for 5 minutes until thoroughly soaked
tray 2 – 5 tsp. Hydrogen Peroxide (or vinegar, lemon juice [acidic]) in 1 quart. of distilled water
agitate the print until darkening stops (several minutes)
final wash – 10 ~ 15 minutes in running water
note: this chemical simply accelerates the oxidation process that will occur anyway as the print dries.

CYANOTYPE TONING – redevelopment

Red–Brown Toner Tannic Acid > Sodium Carbonate
tray 1 – distilled water
soak for 5 minutes until thoroughly soaked
tray 2 – 9 grams Tannic Acid in 1 quart of distilled water [or Oolong Cha (tea)]
agitate the print 30 seconds to 5 minutes
you will not see a color change until you put the print into the Sodium Carbonate!
tray 3 – distilled water – wash for 5 minutes
tray 4 – 1.5 tsp. (4.5 grams) Sodium Carbonate (Washing Soda) in 1 quart. of distilled water
agitate the print until the desired color is reached
optional – 5 tsp. Hydrogen Peroxide in 1 quart of distilled water
agitate the print to intensify the color
final wash – 10 ~ 15 minutes in running water

You can go back-and-forth with this, each time getting a different tone!

Eggplant–Black Toner Sodium Carbonate > Tannic Acid > (Sodium Carbonate)
note: you can do the above in reverse order for a different effect,
Soak the print, put it Sodium Carbonate very briefly until it starts to bleach then transfer to the wash tray and watch it bleach (note: Sodium Carbonate will continue to bleach even after it is put in to a wash tray!), put it in Tannic Acid until you get the desired tone, (optional) return the print to the Sodium Carbonate for a few seconds, final wash for 10 minutes.
You can go back-and-forth here also, getting a different tone each time!

Purple–Brown Toner Ammonia > Tannic Acid > (Sodium Carbonate)
tray 1 – distilled water
soak for 5 minutes until thoroughly soaked
tray 2 – 21 ml Ammonia in 1 quart of distilled water (acts as a bleach)
agitate the print until highlights bleach and shadows turn purple
tray 3 – distilled water
wash for 10 – 15 minutes
tray 4 – 3 grams Tannic Acid in 1 quart of distilled water [(or Oolong Cha (tea)]
agitate the print until the desired color is reached
optional – 1.5 tsp. Sodium Carbonate in 1 quart of distilled water until reaching a red-brown tone
final wash – 10 ~ 15 minutes in running water
You can also do the back-and-forth processing with this recipe.

CYANOTYPE TONING – color change

Violet Toner Pyrogallic Acid > Hydrogen Peroxide
tray 1 – distilled water
soak for 5 minutes until thoroughly soaked
tray 2 – 5 tsp. (10 g.) Pyrogallic Acid in 1 quart of distilled water
agitate the print until the desired color is reached
tray 3 – distilled water – wash for 30 seconds
tray 4 – 4 tsp. Hydrogen Peroxide in 1 quart of distilled water
agitate the print to intensify the color
final wash – 10 ~ 15 minutes in running water
You can also do the back-and-forth processing with this recipe.
note: this toner is greatly affected by water quality, humidity and type of paper used. It does not always work!
note: Tannic Acid and Gallic Acid have a similar effect, because Gallic Acid is anhydrous Tannic Acid (without water).

Eggplant–Red–Black Toner Dektol > Tannic Acid > (Dektol)
tray 1 – distilled water
soak for 5 minutes until thoroughly soaked
tray 2 – Dektol mixed straight from the Vat (or other hard developer)
agitate until a goldenrod color is reached
tray 3 – distilled water – wash for several minutes
tray 4 – Tannic Acid or hot Oolong Tea
agitate until a smokey black color is reached
final wash – 10 ~ 15 minutes in running water
optional – Dektol or Ammonia solution, followed by another 15 minutes final wash

Brown–Green Toner Dektol > Selenium
tray 1 – distilled water
soak for 5 minutes until thoroughly soaked
tray 2 – Dektol mixed straight from the Vat (or other hard developer)
agitate until a goldenrod color is reached
tray 3 – distilled water – wash for at least 1 minute
tray 4 – Selenium diluted 1 : 3 or more from the Vat
agitate until the desired color is reached, but not too long
be careful because Selenium contains Potassium Fericyanide, a bleach
final wash – 10 ~ 15 minutes in running water
You can also do the back-and-forth processing with this recipe.

Speckle Toning
Splash water across the surface of the print before immersing in water developing bath
Splash Dektol across the surface of the print while toning to make dark speckles

This information is garnered from several sources:
Photo-Imaging: A Complete Guide to Alternative Processes by Jill Enfield
Amphoto Books (October 2002)
ISBN: 0817453997

The Book of Alternative Photographic Processes – by Christopher James
Publisher: Thomson Delmar Learning; 1st Edition (June 2001)
ISBN: 0766820777

The Photographer’s Toning Book: The Definitive Guide by Tim Rudman
Amphoto Books (April 2003)
ISBN: 0817454659

and lots of studio experiments…



Sølvnitrat er en giftig og ætsende kemisk forbindelse af sølvkvælstof og ilt. I sin rene form ved stuetemperatur og i atmosfærisk tryk optræder stoffet som gennemsigtige eller hvide krystaller.

Sølvnitrat bruges i fotografiske film og i fremstillingen af farvestoffer. Desuden udgør det “kilden” til sølv ved forsølvning (herunder forsølvning af glasplader som derved bliver til spejle).

Sundhed og sygdom

Sølvnitrat er giftigt ved indtagelse eller inhalation. Ved kontakt med hud kan stoffet skabe brune misfarvninger, som gradvist bliver sorte. Disse misfarvninger kan ikke vaskes eller på anden måde fjernes – har man først fået dem, må man vente på at huden slides udefra, og ny, “pletfri” hud skabes indefra.

Opløsninger med lave koncentrationer (f.eks. 1 %) af sølvnitrat virker antiseptisk, og har tidligere været anvendt som øjendråber på nyfødte.


frederiksen link

vinsyre, dihydroxybutandisyredihydroxyravsyre, C4H6O6, farveløst, krystallinsk stof, der er letopløseligt i vand. Vinsyre er meget udbredt i naturen, både frit og som salte. Under vingæring udskilles det sure kaliumsalt vinsten, der er udgangspunkt for den industrielle fremstilling af vinsyre. Kaliumsaltet omdannes til calciumsaltet, som derpå dekomponeres med svovlsyre.

Den naturlige vinsyre er optisk højredrejende, men der findes også en venstredrejende form (jf. isomeri). Den racemiske blanding af disse, kaldet druesyre, er optisk neutral. Endelig er isomeren mesovinsyre også optisk neutral. Louis Pasteurs studier af vinsyreisomerer lagde i 1848 grunden til den moderne stereokemi. Vinsyreanvendes som smagsforstærker og antioxidant i levnedsmiddelindustrien.

Chine Collé [2]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chine-collé is a special technique in printmaking in which the image is transferred to a surface that is bonded to a heavier support in the printing process. One purpose is to allow the printmaker to print on a much more delicate surface, such as Japanese paper or linen, which pulls finer details off the plate. Another purpose is to provide a background color behind the image that is different from the surrounding backing sheet.

The final image will depend on the design and ink color of the printed image, the color and opacity of the paper to which the image is directly printed (plus any inclusions such as petals or fibers in that paper), and the color of the backing sheet.
In the typical “direct print” method, the plate is inked, the thin paper (dampened) is placed on the inked plate and trimmed to size, paste is applied to the thin paper, and the ensemble (plate plus thin paper with paste) is placed on a dampened backing sheet. Then, this is run through a printing press. In the pressure of the press, the ink is transferred to the thin paper, and the thinner paper is simultaneously adhered to the backing paper. An advantage of this method is that the thin paper will be exactly the desired size, since it is trimmed to size and then quickly affixed in place.
In the typical “pre-pasted” method, the thin paper (dry) is trimmed to the size of the plate. Then, paste is applied and allowed to dry. When the printmaker is ready to print, the paper is dampened to activate the paste and placed, paste-side up, on an inked plate. Then, the ensemble (plate plus thin paper with paste) is placed on a dampened backing sheet and run through a press as described above. An advantage of the pre-pasted method is that once dried, the paste-applied papers can be stored indefinitely, just like a lick-and-stick postage stamp. A disadvantage of this method is that because the paper is trimmed dry, the artist must take into account how much in each direction the paper will expand when it is dampened prior to printing.
Some artists have moved away from precise trimming of a single sheet of paper to the size of the printing plate when using this method. For example, some experiment with pre-cut shapes for a collage effect. Or simlutaneously adhere multiple overlapping pieces of paper under the printed image.
A more traditional paper choice would be a fine paper made from gampi fiber. Some artists experiment with non-traditional papers, using such things as newspaper, ephermera, dress patterns, and book pages as the sheet to be printed on.
Chine-collé is sometimes mistakenly used to refer to any type of collage.
Chine-collé roughly translates from French, chine = tissue and collé meaning glue or paste. “Chine” because the thin paper traditionally used in the process was imported to Europe from China, India and/or Japan.
There is some variation in adhesives used for Chine-collé. Some artists are reported to use a dusting of flour right before pressing rather than paste. Some have tried using no adhesive at all, simply relying on the high pressure of the printing press and properties of the paper (fibers, sizing) to fuse the papers together similar to paper-making; however, this method may be variable and unreliable. More recently, some artists have turned to adhesives such as PVA glue or gel medium rather than paste.
In traditional paste-making for Chine-collé, wheat or rice starch is separated away from gluten and other things in wheat or rice flour. Then, pure starch is cooked with distilled water to form a congealed gel. Finally, the gel is passed through a fine sieve such as a piece of silk to form the paste. Starch-based pastes are considered archival and are sometimes used in other paper-based applications, such as book binding, book repair and collage.

Chine Collé [1]

Chine Collé [1]

Chine Colle was developed by nineteenth-century printers as a way to use thin Chinese and Japanese papers without employing Asian mounting techniques. The term comes from French: chine means “Chinese” and colle means “glue”.

In chine colle the paper to be printed is backed with a water soluble glue before its face is laid on an inked plate on the press bed. Then a stronger dampened paper is laid over the pasted sheet. When the press is run, the thin paper is adhered to the backing paper and printed simultaneously.


Prepare your glue. There should be Methyl Cellulose PVA 1:1 mixture in the lab, if it is not free flowing (not soupy/some body) add a little water .
Choose your chine colle material. Most anything will work as long as it is a lighter weight than your backing paper. Keep in mind that paper stretches when it is wet, and when it is run through a press. If your chine colle material is of the non-stretchy kind, you may get some buckling when the print dries and shrinks. If you let your print dry between blotters or on the taping wall you might minimize this. But don’t let it stop you from experimenting.
Paste up your chine colle pieces. You can either pre-cut your pieces, then glue them, or glue entire sheets of paper and cut the shapes you want once the glue dries. Using a stiff brush, apply the paste to the back of your chine colle piece on a sheet of waxed paper. Start gluing in the center of the piece and work your way out. Be careful not to get glue on the side that will be printed.
Let it dry on the sheet of waxed paper. This is important. You don’t want to use this wet, or the glue may squish under the pressure of the rollers and run all over.
When you are ready to print, all plates are in place on the press and backing paper is ready, peel the chine colle piece off the waxed paper. Yank off any loose strands of glue, squirt the glued side once or twice with a water spray bottle and place the piece, glued side up, where you want it on your plate. Register your printing paper, place newsprint behind that, then print. It is important to use newsprint to protect the blankets from getting impregnated with glue.
Lift off your print slowly and admire your perfectly chine colled creation.
Once your print dries, if your chine colle is not sticking or comes up for some reason, you can try ironing the back of the print with steam. The steam will help reconstitute the glue and adhere it to the paper.

Chemistry and Art: Cyanotypes and Van Dyke Prints

[from William Crawford, The Keepers of Light, p.163-165, 177-180 and Catharine Reeve and Marilyn Sward, The New Photography, p 55-63]


The cyanotype process was invented in 1842 by Sir John Herschel, after he had first discovered the photosensitivity of ferric (iron +3) salts. In this process, a suitable (both chemically and physically) sheet of paper is made sensitive to high energy ultra violet (UV) light by coating it with a solution of ferric ammonium citrate and potassium ferricyanide. Exposure to UV light reduces a portion of the ferric (Fe+3) salt to the ferrous (Fe+2) state, and a portion of the ferricyanide (Fe+3 in Fe(CN)63-) to ferrocyanide (Fe+2 in Fe(CN)64-), resulting in the formation of a pale yellow-blue image consisting of ferrous ferrocyanide. Washing removes the soluble, unreduced (unexposed) salts, leaving behind a deep blue and white image. The image intensifies upon drying as ferrous ferrocyanide is slowly oxidized to a deep blue color that results from ferric ferrocyanide. The oxidation can be hastened by treating the image in an oxidizing bath of either hydrogen peroxide or potassium dichromate.


Prepare stock solutions-

NB: prepare these solutions at least 24 hours before coating paper. Label bottles with dilution ratios, batch numbers and names of chemicals, and the date. Store both solutions in air-tight brown bottles.

solution A:

distilled water at ~21 °C 100 ml (50 ml)

Ferric ammonium citrate (green) 20 g (10 g)

solution B:

distilled water at ~21 °C 100 ml (50 ml)

Potassium ferricyanide 8 g ( 4 g)

A Note on the paper base

The following properties in the paper contribute towards good image resolution:

a smooth ‘hot pressed’ (HP) surface, unless you deliberately want to produce a print on highly textured paper;

a high cotton or alpha-cellulose content;

an internal sizing agent, ideally with a pH of 7-7.5;

there should be an absence of alkaline buffering agents;

good wet strength, hence the heavier weights of paper are more suitable.

All papers have a ‘felt’ or ‘blanket’ side and a ‘wire side. The former generally has a more random texture and has a less intrusive texture.

It should be noted that paper is a chemical entity in its own right. Each type of paper will react in a different manner with the sensitizer – and at times results can also vary from batch to batch.

Sensitize and expose the paper- work in tungsten light only, not fluorescent or daylight.

1. Paper should be cut so that there is a margin of at least 20 to 30 mm around the area to be coated. This allows for handling.

2. Make guide marks delineating the area to be coated on the sheet of paper. These marks should be lightly penciled in and can be best located by using a cardboard template that corresponds to the size of your negative. Write a print serial number on the sheet thus: [your initials].n – e.g. PM.1

3. Mix the following amounts from your ‘stock’ solutions (which should be at room temperature, 18-22 °C) in a 10 ml flask:

The total volume of sensitizer depends on the negative size, the type of paper, and absolute humidity.

There should be enough sensitizer to make 3-5 passes with the coating rod. Adjust as necessary while keeping the 1:1 ratio of sol.A to sol.B

solution A 0.2 ml

solution B 0.2 ml

Use a separate syringe for each solution (label them). After dispensing the solutions into the 10 ml flask, mix thoroughly by passing the liquid in and out of a syringe two or three times. Use the syringe to pick up this sensitizer solution.

4. Tape the marked paper onto a sheet of glass. Arrange glass coating rod (make sure it is free of any dust or grease), blotting paper, and loaded syringe nearby. Clean the paper surface with a blower.

5. Coating should be done at a room temperature of between 18 and 22 °C and a RH of around 75%. (If conditions are too cold or dry, surface crystallization will occur, and too high an ambient temperature or RH may cause the solutions to penetrate too deeply into the paper). Gently eject solution from the syringe along the top of the coating area. Promptly pick up the spreader and place it on the paper just above the liquid line. Draw the rod into the solution, pause briefly (about a second), allowing the fluid to distribute itself evenly along the length of the rod, and then smoothly pull the spreader down the length of the area to be coated. The surface may look blotchy at this stage, but it will even out in the next few moments. One ‘pass’ for a 10×15 cm area will take about 3 to 5 seconds. Apply only a slight pressure, otherwise the paper surface will get abraded. At the bottom of the first pass, ‘hop’ the spreader over the line of solution and smoothly push it back up to the top of the sheet, thus repeating the process, but in the opposite direction. Make 3 to 5 passes over the paper in this way. It is best to stop before all the solution has been absorbed into the paper. The excess is then soaked up with a strip of blotting paper.

5.5 An alternative method is to use a brush to apply the solution.

6. Place paper in drier for 10 minutes. Drier temperature should be between 35-40 °C (95-105 F).

7. As soon as drying is complete, place paper in contact with negative (sensitized surface to emulsion) in printing frame and expose to UV light source. Printing times will vary according to negative density. The image is partly formed during the exposure and the construction of the printing frame allows you to examine the print by opening one half without disturbing the registration of the negative to the print. Make sure that this ‘inspection’ is carried out in an area shielded from the UV source, otherwise the print will be fogged.

Caution: do not look into UV sources while they are on.

8. Clear print in a water bath for about 1 minute. Wash in running water for 5-10 minutes, or until highlight (white) areas in print have cleared.

9. Hang up to dry.

Van Dyke Prints:

For Lab






Ferric Ammonium citrate





tartaric acid





silver nitrate




Total volume


Mix each solution separately.

Combine solutions A and B and slowly add solution C, stirring constantly.

5% thiosulfate

MW Na2S2O3.5H2O

= 248.18

The sensitizing solution is already mixed and prepared. Follow essentially the same steps as for the Cyanotypes.

There is one additional fixing step, after the developing/initial washing for about one minute. Fix for five minutes in a 5% thiosulfate bath. Then wash.


1. Using the negative or other high contrast object (e.g., lace doily or lace ornament; dried flowers and leaves also make interesting prints) and paper supplied make 3 cyanotypes and 3 Van Dyke prints; the first print might should be a test strip to see the effect of exposure time.

2. For each process make changes in one of the variables so that you can study the effect of that variable on the process.



Sunlight if shining

Application method

A (single) negative or pseudonegative

Use a 21-step wedge


Paper – several kinds

Exposure time

# drops

# coatings


3. Turn in all prints, labeled. Either attach to lab report pages or (and perhaps better) put them in an envelope so I can spread them out.


1. Choose the three or four areas (one dark, one white, one or two grays) that you used with your best black and white print -and mark these same locations on your best cyanotype and best Van Dyke print.

Use the colorimeter to measure the L*a*b* values (and others if you are interested).

Compare and comment on the results, i.e., compare L* values among types and a* and b* (and/or chroma and hue) within types.

Be sure to check calibration at the start and again at the end. A graph/chart of L*, a*, and b* values might be good.(That doesn’t mean to recalibrate at the end! – rather check that the calibration is still correct.). Record those two points on your Excel sheet too.

2. Compare the same 3 or 4 areas on your negative. (You may have done this last week with the silver prints).

3. Weather permitting, do at least one exposure using the sunlight rather than the UV lamps or vice versa.

4. Use handmade paper – sizing is an interesting variable.

5. For at least some of your colorimeter readings, do duplicate readings.

Printing data:

A table something like the following should be used for each sample:

Print #

Paper type

ml solution A

ml solution B

# of passes for coating

Room temperature


Exposure time

Rinsing time

Drying conditions

Colorimeter data

Chemistry and Art: Cyanotypes and Van Dyke Prints.

“Tina” Transfer no. 2

brugte det ny staples papir
strøg grundigt

I replied with “a Brother”. He said “THATS YOUR PROBLEM!”. He said that the newer Brother printers use not only a different formula for the toner, but also heat the toner above 400 degrees which is hard to replicate with a iron, therefore getting it off the paper is rarely going to happen. I asked him what would be the best and he said “Anything but brother. My preference is HP’s but do NOT get a “P” series”.

mulig forklaring


Andre navne:
2-Hydroxybenzoesyremethylester, salicylsyremethylester.
(Eng.: Methyl salicylate, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester, wintergreen oil)

Methylsalicylat er en ester mellem salicylsyre og methanol.
Methylsalicylat har en lugt der kan beskrives som mynte, krydret, sød og vintergrøn.
Methylsalicylat er hovedbestanddel i de æteriske olier vintergrøntolie og gaultheriaolie.

MV= 152,15 g/mol; SMP= -8,6oC; KP= 220-223oC; bruttoformel: C8H8O3; densitet: 1,17g g/cm3; CAS-nummer: 119-36-8

Se også ethylsalicylat og propylsalicylat.
BioSite 19/3,07


Wintergrünöl – OMIKRON

Wintergrünöl – ebay de

Direct Photo Copy Transfers

This is a simple, direct process that transfers photocopies on and laser printed images directly to a surface: paper, drafting vellum, glass, mirror, metal. Because solvents and strong oils are used (acetone, goof off, Naz-Dar oil transparent base, or wintergreen oil) use personal protection and test the substrate you are transfer to before proceeding.

Advantages – direct, easy to do, spontaneous and low tech. Images often transfer with “flaws” or defects that in fact can be quite helpful and beautiful. Images can be worked into by hand after transferring. Transferring the photocopy reverses image providing a different perspective. The image can be reversed in some copiers or a copy can be oiled and photocopied from the backside. Photomontages can be made during the photocopying, or more interestingly, during the transfer process.

Disadvantages – sometimes images are lost because of poor copy quality or lack of control (technique). Practice with extra copies on scrap material before final application.

Though wintergreen oil (or other essential oil) is safer product for use in this process, it can irritate skin, eyes, and mucus membranes — use with adequate ventilation and personal protection. Wintergreen oil may be ordered from your local pharmacy or off the web. When using strong solvents* safety precautions must be undertaken or this process may be hazardous to your health. Always use solvents with adequate ventilation and personal protection – gloves, apron and eye protection. Put any rags or pads with solvent into red metal waste cans with lids.


Paper photocopies or laser prints, personal drawing materials and tools

Substrate for transfer to, scissors, masking tape

Newsprint or plain paper, gloves, apron, and eye protection

Solvent-wintergreen oil (acetone or goof-off*)

Cotton rags, webril wipes or make up removal pads?


Rubbed: Position image to be transferred face down upon substrate. Masking tape can be use help hold down the image. Apply a very small amount of solvent on a small pad of cotton rag. Apply the pad to the back of the copy and rub in small circular motion with pressure. Rub hard, being careful not to let the copy move. If necessary transfer the copy in small manageable sections. The copy will become transparent as it transfers. Check your progress, by lifting up an edge while keeping the copy in registration to the substrate.

If you need to be precise registration marks can be places on the back of the paper and the substrate.
Remove copy before solvent dries. When using oil this rarely happens. If the copy adheres to substrate use a damp pad to release it.
On textured paper a burnisher made of wood, plastic or metal can be used to improve transfer.
Color copies may require the use of a burnisher for transferring.
Transferring to non-porous surfaces requires less solvent.
Transferring with Naz-Dar transparent base for oil based screen printing inks is performed by brushing a thin layer onto the back of the copy, placing the copy over the substrate, covering it with a few sheets of news print, and running it through a press under firm pressure.
Press: Set the engaged intaglio press’ pressure so that it is hand tight to the press bed. Swab or brush on a thin coat of oil to the back of the copy. Lay paper on the center of the press bed. Position the oiled copy on the paper and cover with 2-3 sheets of newsprint and run through press. When finished clean press bed and reset pressure for 16 gage metal.


Try transferring just brush strokes, cut or torn shapes.
Use a rounded pencil or burnisher to transfer lines.
Use less oil to achieve a grainy transfer.
Using too much oil saturates the paper, takes days to dry, and makes it difficult to draw in immediately afterwards. Not to mention it gives off a strong and potentially aggravating scent of wintergreen.