Beauty and Joy of Computing

Beauty and Joy of Computing

In this course, you will create programs using the snap programming language, you will learn some of the most powerful ideas of computer science, and you will discuss the social implications of computing, thinking deeply about how you can be personally active in promoting the benefits and reducing the possible harms. For the best experience with Snap!, make sure your browser is up to date.

OPENCV howto – mac

Download | CMake

The release was packaged with CPack which is included as part of the release. The .sh files are self extracting gziped tar files. To install a .sh file, run it with /bin/sh and follow the directions. The OS-machine.tar.gz files are gziped tar files of the install tree.


You can use Homebrew to install CMake with: brew install cmake



Welcome | NodeBox

NodeBox is a node-based software application for generative design. It’s built from the ground up by designers to be easy-to-use, efficient, and fast. Because of its unique approach, NodeBox is ideal for rapid data visualization. NodeBox can import many data formats such as Excel spreadsheets and you can write your own data importers and exporters.


Kodu | Home

Kodu lets kids create games on the PC via a simple visual programming language. Kodu can be used to teach creativity, problem solving, storytelling, as well as programming. Anyone can use Kodu to make a game, young children as well as adults with no design or programming skills.

Mindstorms Book 1980


Seymour Papert’s Mindstorms was published by Basic Books in 1980, and outlines his vision of children using computers as instruments for learning. A second edition, with new Forewords by John Sculley and Carol Sperry, was published in 1993. The book remains as relevant now as when first published almost forty years ago.

Visual programming language

Visual programming language

In computing, a visual programming language ( VPL) is any programming language that lets users create programs by manipulating program elements graphically rather than by specifying them textually. A VPL allows programming with visual expressions, spatial arrangements of text and graphic symbols, used either as elements of syntax or secondary notation.

Advanced stippling

Advanced stippling

The following information is retained for historical purposes. Adrian Secord has removed his Weighted Voronoi Stippler program from his website. Two other stipplers based upon Adrian’s work and which produce SVG to consider are Evil Mad Science’s StippleGen and Unfortunately, there is very little in the way of ready-to-use software packages or plugins for automatically producing stippled images.

StippleGen – Evil Mad Scientist Wiki


StippleGen is a free, open source, and cross-platform application from Evil Mad Scientist Laboratories that can create stipple drawings and ” TSP art,” from image files. One of the perennial problems that we have come across in a variety of contexts, including CNC artwork and producing artwork for the Egg-Bot, is the difficulty of creating good-quality toolpaths- i.e., vector artwork representing halftones -when starting from image files.

Vraag – Blender

Vraag – A higher-level library for Blender scripting – BlenderNation

Andreas Klostermann is working on a concept for a new type of scripting language for Blender. From what I’ve seen so far it has the potential to make scripting more easily accessible for artists. What do you think? Blender Vraag is a Python library for more elegant or easy scripting in Blender.

location pc C:\Program Files\Blender Foundation\Blender\2.80\scripts\addons


L-py install


This project was developed as part of a TU Vienna Bachelor thesis on the use of L-systems inside of the open source 3D computer graphics software Blender. The thesis describes applications of the code prodived in this project for specific use cases of L-system modeling in Blender and specifically to environmental interaction of a growing structure with a Blender scene.

install Blender


Lpy User Guide – LPy 0 documentation

L-systems were conceived as a mathematical framework for modeling growth of plants. L-Py is a simulation software that mixes L-systems construction with the Python high-level modeling language. In addition to this software module, an integrated visual development environment has been developed that facilitates the creation of plant models.

pip install conda-app (0.11)

conda create -n lpy openalea.lpy -c openalea



ryzentosh update

Circuit Python Libs

CircuitPython – Libraries

The CircuitPython Library Bundle contains all current libraries available for CircuitPython. They are designed for use with CircuitPython and may or may not work with MicroPython. The bundle options are explained below. CircuitPython libraries are separate files designed to work with CircuitPython code. CircuitPython programs require a lot of information to run.


CircuitPython – Downloads

The easiest way to program microcontrollers

Node.js install

Download | Node.js

Node.js® is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine.

use LTS – download & install


terminal install server: “sudo npm i http-server -g” _ read info

cd folder – write “http-server” to start it on localhost port 8080

node package manager

node packages:

npm -i python3 – npm -i python2

Snap! (Build Your Own Blocks) 4.2

Snap! (Build Your Own Blocks) 4.2

For research purposes, this site uses Google Analytics to collect aggregate information about, e.g., how often the site is used and what links are followed from it. We do not collect personally identifiable information, but if you have a Gmail account or have ever Googled yourself from your own computer, then, despite their assurances to the contrary, Google does collect such information.

STEAM – Science Tech Engineering Art Math

science, technology, engineering, art and mathematics

STEAM programs aim to teach students to think critically and use engineering or technology in imaginative designs or creative approaches to real-world problems while building on students’ mathematics and science base. STEAM programs add art to STEM curriculum by drawing on design principles and encouraging creative solutions.

John Maeda:
At Rhode Island School of Design, Maeda led the movement to transform STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) to STEAM by adding Art. He states:

I believe art and design are poised to transform our economy in the 21st century like science and technology did in the last century

CNC/3D boards + firmware + hosts



  • Repetier 1.0.2 –
  • Makelangelo 6.17.1 –
  • Marlin 1.1.9 –


  • Repetier 2.13 – 1.10 –
  • PrintRun 1.6.0 –
    (Mac PC)
  • Makelangelo 7.15.5 –




  • GRBL 1.1f –


  • LaserWeb –
    (Free Mac – PC)
  • LaserGrbl –
    (Free – Mac – PC)
  • Benbox – (custom grlb 0.8)
  • RobotLaser –
    (Payment – PC – grbl 1.1)
  • T2Laser –
    (Payment – Windows)
  • Universal Gcode Sender 2.0 –


3D Basic Parameters

Printing size: 300300400 mm

Layer height: 0.05~0.4 mm (Low: 0.25mm – Normal: 0.2mm – Fine: 0.1mm)

Nozzle size: 0.4 mm

Printing precision: ±0.1 mm

Print speed: <200 mm/s  – suggest: 50 mm/s

Printing material:1.75 mm PLA, ABS, Wood and so on

Support format: STL – obj – gcode (.gco)

System: Linux – Windows – OSX

Heatplate: PLA: 40-60 degrees

cura install:
other – Prusa Mendel i3
Tools: Print all at once
File-Machine Settings: 300 300 400 height
Heated Bed check
Change Machine Name CR-10 – ok

Layer height: 0.15mm
Shell Thickness: 1.2mm (0.8 – 2mm)
enable retraction: yes
Bottom top thickness: 1.2mm
Fill density: 20% (solid: 100% – empty: 0% – normally 20 is enough) – how strong
— Speed and Temperature
Print speed: 50 mm (- 80mm)
Printing temperature: PLA: 200 C (190-220)
Bed termperature: 40C 45C 50C
— Support
Everywhere (none – touching build plate)
Raft (None – brim)
— Filament
Flow 100

Nozzle 0.4 mm (0.2 – 1mm) smaller is finer and slower – more clogging
— Retraction
Speed: 70mm (80)
Distance: 8mm (10)
— Quality
Initial layer: 0.3mm
Initial line width: 100
Cut off bottom: 0.0
Dual overlap: 0.15mm
— Speed
Travel speed: 70 mm/s
Bottom layer speed: 25 mm/s
Infill speed: 0.0mm/s (0 = printing speed) reduce time but less quality
Outer Shell speed: 30mm/s (0 = printing speed)
Inner Shell speed: 0.0mm/s (0 = printing speed)
Minimal layer time: 5 sec
enable cooling fan: YES



A Servo Motor can be either a DC, AC or other type of motor and includes a device to know it’s position (ex.: potentiometer, digital encoder…).

Inside most Servo Motors you will find: A motor, gears, some type of limit stops that will limit the movement of the shaft, a potentiometer of some kind for position feedback and some integrated circuit to move the servo to a specific position.

A Standard Servo has around 180 degrees of motion. These can be modified to make them rotate 360 degrees or you can buy them already made this way.

The modification involves opening the Servo case, removing the limiting device and disconnect the potentiometer from the shaft.  Once done the Servo will rotate in either direction endlessly since it has no way of knowing it’s position anymore and there are no limit switches to stop it.

Most Servo Motors have three wires:

Black: Ground

Red: Voltage

White or Yellow: Control Wire.

To move a Servo you send a pulse to the control wire.  This process is referred to Pulse Coded Modulation.

Standard Servos expects to see a pulse every 20ms.  Depending on the length of this pulse the Servo will move to a specific angle.

For example a 1.5ms pulse will make the Servo move to the 90 degree position (which normally is the neutral or middle position).

A pulse shorter than 1.5ms will be move the Servo closer to 0 degrees and a longer one will move closer to 180 degrees.

Servos can have a lot of torque for their size and they also draw power in proportion to how hard they are working.  So if you project is not moving much weight than the Servo will not consume much energy.


Control a ‘LOT’ of Servo Motors using a Joystick, Arduino and PCA9685 PWM Module

TUTORIAL Use the PCA9685 PWM Module to control a lot of servos simultaneously! – OVERVIEW We have seen in prior tutorials how to connect and control Stepper Motors. Stepper Motors are great for many projects but can get expensive when your projects needs

Node.js on the Raspberry

sudo apt update

sudo apt full-upgrade -y

apt list nodejs

Major Version Upgrades

curl -sL | sudo -E bash –

curl -sL | sudo -E bash –

sudo apt install nodejs

node -v

v8.11.3 LTS

  • $ node
  • > 1 + 3
  • 4
  • > # We can hit Ctrl-C twice to exit the REPL and get back to the bash (shell) prompt.


excerpt from

Install Node.js and Npm on Raspberry Pi

Install Node.js and Npm on Raspberry Pi: You can build many apps using node.js and npm on your raspberry pi and it’s very easy to interact with GPIO or other components connected to your raspberry pi. So if you are like me and like to do it on node.js here a few simple steps to install n…

Polyester Plate Lithography / Pronto Plates

Kevin Haas |

DRAWING MATERIALS Ball Point Pen, Sharpie or Permanent Marker, China Marker/ Litho Crayons, Photocopier Toner (Must be heat-set in an oven or on a hot plate at 225º – 250º for 10 minutes.)

Using Adobe Photoshop and a laser printer you can easily scan and print images onto polyester plates. A 1200dpi laser printer such as an HP 5000, a GCC Elite XL or a Xante printer will work best. However, it is best to make a few adjustments to your print settings to make polyester plates print easily and accurately at the press. By default most laser printers will print images over 133 lines per inch. Lines per inch (lpi) is a measurement of how many lines of small varying sized halftone dots are used to create the illusion of a continuous tone image. Since printing these plates by hand requires more ink and pressure than offset printing, which is what these plates were intended for, we need to decrease the lpi to 75. If you did not do this, the ink sitting on top of all the very tiny halftone dots would likely run together, or ‘bridge’. To prevent this from happening, lower the lpi to maintain a balance between the amount of ink that is needed to print and the space around the dots to hold water that repels the ink. As you gain more control over your printing the easier it will be for you to print higher lpi images. 95lpi is fine for hand printing, but can still be manageable. Another good thing to keep in mind is the size of your image. Although the plate size may be 11×17” or 13×19”, it can be difficult to ink an image that covers almost the entire plate. I would recommend at least 1” margins on each side and printing no larger than an 9×15 image on an 11×17” plate, and a 11×17” image on a 13×19” plate. These are the steps you should follow to properly image your polyester plates:

  1. Check your Page Setup. MB > File > Page Setup…
    Set the Format to the printer you are using and the Page Size to match the size of the polyester plates. Orientation (portrait or landscape) should also be set at this time.

  2. Set your Printing Options MB > File > Print with Preview…
    Use this dialogue box to flip the image so it will be backwards on the plate by checking the ‘Emulsion Down’ box. This is also where you will access the Screen settings to change the lpi of the printed image. Set your Halftone Screen’s Lines Per Inch to 75. Angles for 4 Color images: Black/Darkest Color: 45°, Cyan/Next Lighter: 15°, Magenta/Next Lighter: 75°, Yellow/Lightest: 90°.

  3. Set the image Quality Settings MB > File > Print

  4. Load your polyester plate into the manual feed tray on the printer and click Print. Viola!

• Printing Paper, Newsprint
• Two Bowls one filled with 1 L water and 30ml Gum Arabic
• One large sponge cut in half
• Felt & Toothpaste
• Inking Brayers
• Lithography Inks: Black(Graphic #1796), Handschy Yellow, Magenta, Cyan, White, Tint Base/Transparent Base
• Magnesium Carbonate or #8 Varnish.

Prepare newsprint, and printing paper, making sure to add the ‘T’ and Bar registration marks on the back of the paper. Mix and modify your inks as needed and roll out your slab of ink with the brayer. Fill one bowl with about 1L water and 15ml of Gum Arabic. This will help reduce the Ph of the water. Ideally, polyester plates work best with a dampening solution between 5.5 and 4.5 Ph, but I find that the small amount of Gum Arabic in the water is adequate. Rinse your sponges. Setup the press, checking pressure, and registration on your plates.

Polyester plates print best with inks that are moderately stiff with a fair bit of length. True lithographic inks for hand printing are very stiff and moderately short. An ink such as Daniel Smith’s Crayon Black is too stiff for polyester plates and should be modified by adding a lighter varnish, such as #3, or by adding Handschy CS800 transparent base to make it more pliable for printing these plates. The Graphic Chemical Litho Black #1796 works well, but may need a small amount of mag or #8 varnish. Color Litho inks, such as the Handschy line of inks, may work well out of the can but will often need to be modified with Magnesium Carbonate. Slowly fold it into your ink until it is mixed in well and then check the consistency to determine if it is correct. It should hold its shape as it sits on the slab rather than immediately relaxing into a blob. If the pigment ‘bleeds’ from your ink while printing, such as it will do with magenta and cyan, adding #8 varnish or body gum to the ink will help greatly. Color mixtures using mostly Handschy Tint Base will require more mag.

Printing using an etching press
To print on the Brand etching press, set the pressure to –1|0, so the roller is just in contact with the press bed. It is easiest to ink your plate on a separate glass slab before printing. Once it is inked, place the dried plate face up on the center of the bed and your paper face down on the plate. Cover the plate and paper with 2 sheets of newsprint. Place a tympan on top and run them through the press. Felts are not needed.

Printing using a litho press
To print on a litho press, lay your plate centered and face up on the press. Place your paper on the plate according to your registration marks, and cover with two sheets of newsprint. Cover with a greased tympan and print. You should only use as much pressure as needed to pull a good impression. The plate will break down quicker if excessive pressure is used. Before you print, set up the litho press by centering your plate, setting the pressure, and marking your start and stop points (traverse marks).


Figure Drawing

Figure Drawing: The Structural Anatomy and Expressive Design of the Human Form (7th Edition)by Nathan Goldstein

Publisher:Pearson, 2010
368 pages – softcover
9780136031918 / 0136031919

Appropriate for all beginning and intermediate courses in Art, Basic Drawing, Figure Drawing, or Life Drawing.
Providing a concise but comprehensive survey of all matters pertaining to drawing the human figure, this well-illustrated and accurate guide demonstrates the interplay of structure, anatomy, design, and expression in sound figure drawing.  This text shows how the integration of these four factors is essential in drawing the figure in a compelling and lucid manner.

gelatine plate – vers 3

12×12 inch: 30x30cm

January 1st, 2018: Permanent Gelli-Plate

January 1st, 2018: Permanent Gelli-Plate Happy New year! To bring in 2018, we’re going to show you how to make a permanent gelli-plate. It’s re-moldable, mol…

1.5 Cups Glycerin – 3.54dl
4.5 oz (18 packets) Geletin – 127.57g
1.5 cups cold water – 3.54dl
1.5 cups of isopropyl alcohol – 3.54dl

112.64/127.57 = 0.883


Water alcolhol
add gelatin

permanent gelliplate – ver 2

160 gram Gelatinepulver
250 ml Vand
125 ml Isopropyl-Alkohol 70%
125 ml Glycerin

1 – hæld 250ml vand i en gryde
2 – tilsæt gelantine – omrør
3 – simre i 10 min
4 – bland 125 ml Isopropyl-Alkohol 70% og 125 ml Glycerin
5 – lad gelantine størkne
6 – tilsæt alkohol/glycerin blandingen
7 – opvarm til klumperne er væk
8  – hæld i støbeform gennem si for at undgå bobler
9 – fjern evt luftbobler med papirlapper

Alice-ART Neue Rezeptur für dauerhafte Gelatine-Platte new recipe for home made gelli plate

Um eine dauerhafte Gelatine-Platte zu machen benötigt man folgende Zutaten: 9 Päckchen Gelatinepulver (je 9g = ca. 80 g), 250 ml Wasser, 125 ml Isopropyl-Alk…

permanent gelli plate – ver 1

Recipe for a non-toxic moldfree Gelli Plate. Perfect for gel printing; the classic hectograph technique for monoprints. No need to cool or freeze. When it gets damaged or too dirty you can easily melt it for reuse. It becomes even better after a while.

30×40 plate

1 – 1 liter glycerin
2 – sugar 250g
3 – gelatine 175g
4 – 600 ml postevand

1 opløs sukkeret i 200ml vand
2 put  resterende 400ml vand i gelatinen – rør
3 hvil 10 min
4 tilfør sukkervandet – rør
5 put i gryde – tilsæt glycerinen
6 opvarm – må IKKE koge
7 afskum om nødvendigt
8 gør form klar
9 køl ned

The Ultimate Homemade Gelli Plate

Finally a good recipe for a non-toxic moldfree Gelli Plate. Perfect for gel printing; the classic hectograph technique for monoprints. No need to cool or fre…

— genbrug
1 – klip i stykker m. saks
2 – micro 2-3 min 900W
3 – si gamle malingsrester fra
4 – støb ny


Gelatine Printing

Gelatine printing is a form of monoprinting in which a gelatine slab is used as a printing `plate’ in conjunction with standard water soluble printing inks/paints to create images. Very little pressure is required to make monoprints using this technique – no press is required.

Basic materials

  • brayer/paintbrushes
  • slab of glass for ink rolling
  • paper/ aluminum foil /plastic – for covering the work space
  • removable tape (masking, cellophane, etc. not essential but can be handy)
  • water-soluble printing ink , acrylic paint, (Oil-based inks are not advised.)
  • paper
  • something to print e.g. stencils or flat textured objects: plants, feathers, found objects, etc.

To create the gelatine plate
I use 2 tablespoons of unflavored gelatine for each cup of water – food grade Gelatine –  (It can be helpful to dissolve the gelatine with some cold water first then add hot to make up the amount.) The finished slab should have a yellow tinge. If the gelatine is too thick I have noticed that it is harder to release the paint/ink – weather conditions also effect this.) The plate can remain in the container (if your paper size is smaller than the container) but if you want to use the edges you need to turn it out and make a plate that is about 1.5 cm thick.
For a more permanent gelatine plate substitute 1/2 the water for glycerine. (eg. 6 TBS gelatine, 1 1/2 c glycerine and 1 1/2 c water)

Smooth is good as any marks will leave indentations. Try shallow baking tins, Tupperware style containers, trays from op shops etc.  You can make your own shape by building up the edges with non-drying modelling clay/plasticine around the interior edge of a tray or on a plexiglass sheet. The plexiglass will yield gelatine with two flat, workable sides, but the plate must be level and check very carefully for leaks in your clay dams before pouring the hot gelatine. Larger plates may be made using larger containers, in which case lining the bottom with plastic wrap will make the plate easier to remove.

Pour dissolved gelatine into the mould. Sweep out any air bubbles with paper scraps. Allow the liquid gelatine to solidify by leaving it undisturbed in a cool place (refrigerator, if possible), until it is quite firm to the touch.
When ready, dip a knife in warm water and run it carefully along the inside of the mould, then gently get hands underneath hands underneath lift up, keeping hands wide walk your fingers along length to avoid cracking and ease the gelatine out of the mould.

Smooth is good, thin is good. Use a dry paper. Watercolor papers, especially the hot press ones (Arches is good). Rives BFK, some pastel drawing paper, lightweight printmaking paper, Asian papers, brown paper, and tissue paper. Paj and organza silk pick up with delicacy. Computer and velum paper tend to curl up at the edges once they dry.

Standard water-based printing inks generally dry very fast, typically less than 5 minutes. This is good because your prints dry quickly however the ink/paint may dry too quickly on the gelatine block. It can be useful to add mediums: gel medium to acrylic paint, textile medium to textile inks, transparent base and extender to printing inks.

Many techniques used in traditional monotypes are possible using gelatine as the printing surface. Ink can be applied to the gelatine in a positive manner, using brushes and brayers to develop the image. One great advantage of using a gelatine plate is that ink can be transferred fairly evenly with very little pressure and gelatine is an excellent material for transferring details from found materials.

Squeeze some printing ink onto your palate and brayer it evenly until you have a nice thin coating on the brayer. Brayer the ink onto the gelatine plate gently and evenly. (Or paint on with a brush and even out with a brayer directly on the plate) The ink colour should both suit your subject matter and contrast with your paper in order to bring out the most detail.
Place flat textured object/s on top of the inked plate. Gently press down to be sure there is good contact with the gelatine, but try not to tear, gouge, or damage the plate.
Leave the object/s in place on the plate and lay a piece of paper down on top of it. Rub your palm lightly over the back of the paper to transfer the ink. You don’t need much pressure; gently ensure that the paper makes good contact with the exposed gelatine plate. Peel the paper off. The resulting print is called a negative image. Newsprint can be used like a blotter if you are not so keen on the silhouette image results from this step, or have a spare piece of paper where everything excess gets loaded onto – could be useful for wrapping paper.
Continue by gently lifting the textured object/s off the gelatine. You will see some texture imprints which will appear in your monotype.  Lay a fresh dry piece of paper/fabric down on the gelatine plate and run your hand over gently, again to ensure a good contact between the paper and the gelatine. Slowly peel the paper off. This print is called a positive image.
Gelatine has a natural suction to it and ink transfers quickly and easily.  As you continue to work with the gelatine, it starts to give off moisture, which mixes in with the inks, adding fluidity and translucency, resulting in painterly, fluid-looking prints. While the plate can be cleaned and used several times, it will eventually start to break down. After much use, it can crack, crumble, and develop texture, all of which give interesting effects in your prints. These irregularities and surprises can give you the opportunity to think of some of the printmaking session as drawing.

Stencil printing
start with a flat application of color, making layering a part of the image from the beginning. (Use a bit of masking tape to fix your paper down on one end to help with registration) As the image develops and some areas become complete, they can be blocked out with a homemade stencil of cardstock or mylar, and you can continue developing your image on the uncovered areas of the plate. You can cut your own stencil shapes, or even incorporate store-bought stencils into your prints. I like using the boldness of stencils with something more detailed, like fabric mesh.

Printing Tips
The gelatine plate is quite cold when it comes out of the refrigerator and moisture will condense on it for the first 20 or so minutes of use. You may find that your first prints are a little bit runnier than your later prints or you may need to wait until the plate dries up slightly. As the plate warms up, it will become more and more `mushy’ and may start to fall apart. Chilling the plate after 2 or 3 hours of use helps to restore its firmness.
If you tear the edges, just cut away with a knife till you have the shape you want.

I cut stencils out like this – photocopy (or draw) a simple silhouette onto the middle of a sheet of mylar and then cut around the image with a soldering iron. Do on a glass surface. My soldering iron is a textile one – it has a fixed temperature and a fine point.

Clean the plate: you can use a piece of newspaper to pick up extra ink left behind, or use a slightly damp sponge. I clean mine with baby wipes! The plate may look coloured but you can print other colours on it after cleaning.

Experimental Techniques

  • Negative-on-positive, positive-on-negative
  • Printing negative images on top of positive images and vice-versa.
  • Apply ink to printing object
  • Apply small amounts of ink, either with the brayer or your fingertips, to an object before pressing it onto the gelatine plate.
  • Different papers – different types of paper will absorb the ink differently and reflect the technique differently. I like using white paint on black paper for strong imagery.
  • Experiment with different brands and types of printing ink, paints, dyes, etc.
  • Tempera paint is particularly well suited for young children. Be sure that all colorants are water soluble! Many recommend Akua Kolor.
  • Use the plate like a rubber stamp – cut the plate into pieces, ink them, then pick them up and print on surfaces as if you were using a rubber stamp.(It’s easy to see where you are stamping as you can see through the gelatine!)
  • Do a woodblock/screenprint print over the top.
  • Alternative media – try fabric, painted surfaces, wood, egg shells, etc.
  • Gelatine can even be used as a material for relief printing, cutting, gouging the plate. It must be handled carefully, and it won’t stand up to editioning.
  • Pour gelatine onto one of your etching plates to create a flexible stamp.


Gelatine er et naturprodukt af animalsk oprindelse. Det fremstilles udfra kollagen, som er er protein og en vigtig bestanddel af bindevæv. Gelatine kan derfor udvindes fra hud, sener og knogler. Omdannelsen fra kollagen til gelatine består i en ændring i molekylets struktur, som f.eks. vil ske ved opvarmning. Gelatine er i modsætning til kollagen vandopløseligt, og ved afkøling vil der derfor dannes en gel.

Den industrielle fremstilling af gelatine er typisk af hud, sener og knogler fra svin og kvæg, men kan også bestå af råvarer fra andre drøvtyggere (får og geder), fjerkræ, fisk og vildt.

Først foretages en knusning af råvarerne, hvorefter der foretages en grundig affedtning. Dernæst behandles råvarerne i saltsyrebad i flere dage, hvorefter gelatineproduktet ekstraheres (udtrækkes) fra knogler, huder m.m. med syre og så behandles gelatineproduktet i basisk væske i flere uger. Derefter foretages ekstraktion i varmt vand. Endelig bliver gelatineopløsningen filtreret, koncentreret og steriliseret ved 140°C før den endelige tørring af produktet.

Teknologisk har gelatine flere egenskaber som for eksempel emulgeringsmiddel, geleringsmiddel, bindemiddel og fortykkelsesmiddel. En lang række forarbejdede fødevarer som f.eks. kødpålæg, kager, desserter og slik, herunder vingummi, indeholder gelatine.

gelantine er også kendt som husblas for forbrugerne….


Take a look at the image of a square next to a circle. When the circle is mathematically the same height as the square it appears to be too small… to counteract that the height needs to be increased slightly so it looks correct to the human eye. This height increase is called ‘Overshoot’.

see great blog by type designer Tobias Frere-Jones that explains Type Mechanics

irradiation phenomenon

Inverting files isn´t always straightforward:

As you can see from the image above when black on a white object is reversed we experience what’s known as irradiation phenomenon, whereby the white version looks 10% larger. To counteract this illusion, it’s important to slightly reduce the overall weight of the logo.

Node RED

install windows:

Download | Node.js

Node.js® is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine.

download and install latest LTS for your system.


Check version using Powershell: node --version; npm --version

— v8.11.3

add-ons from vanilla install

esp scargill
flickr – tumblr – instagram
twitter varianter
pi gpio johnny five
SL 03 RFID pi
wii nunchuck
open CV
midi — fail




facebook messenger



(dmx – openlighting – artnet)

home assistant

mongoose os