2 columns

My Tumblr

  • It does not matter how slow you go so long as you do not stop.
    Wisdom of Confucius

  • photo from Tumblr

    Passing through Times Square by Mareen Fischinger

  • My favorite web site

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.

  • Jack: Hey, you know what sucks?
    Lindsey: vacuums
    Jack: Hey, you know what sucks in a metaphorical sense?
    Lindsey: black holes
    Jack: Hey, you know what just isn't cool?
    Lindsey: lava?

  • Allison Weiss — Fingers Crossed


  • An example post

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Aliquam nisi lorem, pulvinar id, commodo feugiat, vehicula et, mauris. Aliquam mattis porta urna. Maecenas dui neque, rhoncus sed, vehicula vitae, auctor at, nisi. Aenean id massa ut lacus molestie porta. Curabitur sit amet quam id libero suscipit venenatis.

    • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.
    • Consectetuer adipiscing elit.
    • Nam at tortor quis ipsum tempor aliquet.

    Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Suspendisse sed ligula. Sed volutpat odio non turpis gravida luctus. Praesent elit pede, iaculis facilisis, vehicula mattis, tempus non, arcu.

    Donec placerat mauris commodo dolor. Nulla tincidunt. Nulla vitae augue.

    Suspendisse ac pede. Cras tincidunt pretium felis. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Pellentesque porttitor mi id felis. Maecenas nec augue. Praesent a quam pretium leo congue accumsan.

  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Aliquam nisi lorem, pulvinar id, commodo feugiat, vehicula et, mauris. Aliquam mattis porta urna. Maecenas dui neque, rhoncus sed, vehicula vitae, auctor at, nisi. Aenean id massa ut lacus molestie porta. Curabitur sit amet quam id libero suscipit venenatis.

Decagonal and Quasicrystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture

Decagonal and Quasicrystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture | peterlu.org

The conventional view holds that girih (geometric star-and-polygon) patterns in medieval Islamic architecture were conceived by their designers as a network of zigzagging lines, where the lines were drafted directly with a straightedge and a compass. We show that by 1200 C.E.

Girih tiles

Girih tiles – Wikipedia

Girih tiles are a set of five tiles that were used in the creation of Islamic geometric patterns using strapwork ( girih) for decoration of buildings in Islamic architecture. They have been used since about the year 1200 and their arrangements found significant improvement starting with the Darb-i Imam shrine in Isfahan in Iran built in 1453.

Tsubaki Abura

Tsubaki Abura – Camellia Oil

Camellia oil is applied to the barengawa (the bamboo sheath on a baren) to keep it supple and prolong its life. The oil may be applied with a saturated pad, cotton ball, or use the palm of your hand. Rub just a drop or two of oil into the sheath, paying attention to the sides as well as the face of the barengawa.

Imported from Japan, our camellia oil comes from camellia japonica seeds. It is cosmetic grade and used in Japan as a hair and skin moisturizer, so it is good for your skin as well the barengawa.

The oil will also protect cutting tools from rust. Apply a small amount to the steel blade after sharpening it on water stones.

Recipe for Pure Rice Starch Paste

1)
This neutral pH rice starch powder is made from glutinous rice, so mixing and
cooking it on the stove is not necessary. If your tap water has a high mineral content, use distilled water instead.

1. Place 3 tablespoons of rice starch powder in 1 cup of boiling water.
2. Stir briskly with a wire whisk until smooth. If there are lumps left, pour the hot mixture through a strainer and discard the lumps.
3. Cool before using. The rice paste will thicken as it cools. This recipe will produce a paste that is about the consistency of heavy cream or yogurt.

For a thicker paste, use 4 tablespoons of rice starch; for a thinner paste, use 2 tablespoons.

2)
If you prefer to cook the paste, this recipe is from The Art & Craft of Woodblock Printmaking.

1. Mix 2 tablespoons of rice starch with 5 dl (3½ tablespoons) cold water
2. Stir until smooth and milky
3. Bring 150ml (2/3 cup) of water almost to the boil
4. Add the paste mix in a smooth ribbon while stirring
5. Bring to a boil and keep stirring constantly until the mix goes translucent (about five minutes)
6. Cool, stirring from time to time

The mixture will thicken as it cools. If it is too thick, thin with water. If it is too thin, make a new mixture
but this time make it extra thick so you can add it to the first mixture. Combining the two will give the
optimal thickness.

Nori – Rice Starch Paste

Nori

Nori is very important in the Japanese style of printmaking. It works as a dispersing agent to give the ink body so it will spread evenly over the block. Ink without nori can look speckled when it is printed, often an unwanted effect, while ink with nori prints more uniformly. Traditionally, it is also used to paste the original drawing to the block.

Nori can be used for chine collé, book repair, and everyday paper pasting jobs. It is smooth, has a pleasant scent, and will not stain. Water reversible, nori is acid free, strong, and because it contains a very tiny amount of formalin, it does not spoil.

If you prefer to make your own rice paste, we also carry Pure Rice Starch.

seen at McClain´s Printmaking Supplies

kento registration

The kento is a simple device by means of which the printer insures the register of the picture throughout the printing process. It has been employed for several centuries, and experience has proved it to be the best means for the purpose. The principle is to maintain with absolute exactness the width of the margin of every requisite block by means of two small projections, the kagi (key) and the hikitsuke (draw stop), which are cut directly on the block, as shown in Figure 1. These guides cut on the key block will be printed on the kyogo (proofs pulled from the key block) and therefore copies on every color block, keeping the margin the same width as that of the key block. The printer positions his paper so that its edges coincide with these guides during printing. The kagi is a right-angled guide at the lower right-hand corner of the block; the hikitsuke, a straight-line guide…at a short distance from the lower left-hand corner. To cut these guides, the carver uses the kento-nomi,(a 15mm chisel) the edge of which is strongly made with a wider angle and is perfectly straight. The kento-nomi is held by the grip in the right hand, resting upright on the board with its edge exactly at the line to be cut, in such a manner that the flat side of the tools is vertical to the surface of the board (Figure 2). Then it is pressed down to make a cut about one-eighteenth of an inch deep. After the necessary lines have been cut in this way, the space must be cleared with an aisuki(bull-nose chisel) of large size. The clearing must be very shallow and must produce a flat and smooth surface in order to facilitate the fitting of the paper during printing. The depth required is two to three times the thickness of the paper to be used. In making the kagi, the cleared part must slope very slightly toward the point of the right-angled corner. The hikitsuke is left in the form of a sort of step, the top of which is cut in a straight line. The detail of these two guides can be seen in Figure 3a and 3b.

Re-printed from Japanese Print-Making by Toshi Yoshida and Rei Yuki, c. 1966

PDF

Products – Charmed Labs

Products – Charmed Labs

New! Pixy for LEGO Mindstorms Fast vision sensor for LEGO robotics Easily “teach” Pixy objects to track Connects directly to NXT or EV3 brick Pixy (CMUcam5) Fast vision sensor for robotics Easily “teach” Pixy objects to track Connects directly to Arduino Pan/Tilt Kit for Pixy Dual servos provide X-Y movement Great “Hello world” demo for …

mDrawbot Kit – Open-source Arduino Robot Platform

mDrawbot Kit

Based on Makeblock open platform, mDrawBot is a transformable drawing robot kit that integrates mechanics, electronics, software, and art. It can be assembled into four forms: mScara(Cylindrical Coordinates Robotic Arm), mSpider(Wall-Drawing Machine), mEggBot(Egg-Painting Robot), mCar(Drawing Car).

Based on Makeblock open platform, mDrawBot is a transformable drawing robot kit that integrates mechanics and electronics via the easy-to-use software mDraw.

mScara (Cylindrical Coordinates Robotic Arm)
mSpider (Wall-Drawing Machine)
mEggBot (Egg-Painting Robot)
mCar (Drawing Car).

Definitions

CAD
Acronym for computer-aided design

CAM
computer-aided manufacturing

CNC
computer numerical control: automated operation of a machine by a computer program.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS:

DRV8825 Stepper Motor Driver Module

The DRV8825 stepper motor driver carrier is a breakout board for TI’s DRV8825 microstepping bipolar stepper motor driver. The module has a pinout and interface that are nearly identical to those of our A4988 stepper motor driver module, so it can be used as a higher-performance drop-in replacement for those boards in many applications. The DRV8825 features adjustable current limiting, overcurrent and overtemperature protection, and six microstep resolutions (down to 1/32-step). It operates from 8.2 – 45 V and can deliver up to approximately 1.5 A per phase without a heat sink or forced air flow.
DRV8825 allows higher resolutions by allowing intermediate step locations, which are achieved by energizing the coils with intermediate current levels. The resolution (step size) selector inputs (MODE0, MODE1, and MODE2) enable selection from the six step resolutions according to the table below:
MODE0 MODE1 MODE2 Microstep Resolution
Low Low Low Full step
High Low Low Half step
Low High Low 1/4 step
High High Low 1/8 step
Low Low High 1/16 step
High Low High 1/32 step
Low High High 1/32 step
High High High 1/32 step
    There are 2 wiring modes for connecting a microcontroller to the DRV8825 module:

Specification

  • Simple step and direction control interface
  • Six different step resolutions: full-step, half-step, 1/4-step, 1/8-step, 1/16-step, and 1/32-step
  • Adjustable current control lets you set the maximum current output with a potentiometer, which lets you use voltages above your stepper motor’s rated voltage to achieve higher step rates
  • Intelligent chopping control that automatically selects the correct current decay mode (fast decay or slow decay)
  • 45 V maximum supply voltage
  • Built-in regulator (no external logic voltage supply needed)
  • Can interface directly with 3.3 V and 5 V systems
  • Over-temperature thermal shutdown, over-current shutdown, and under-voltage lockout
  • Short-to-ground and shorted-load protection

Download

5V Stepper Motor 28BYJ-48Drive Test Module Board ULN2003 5Line 4Phase Kit

5V Stepper Motor 28BYJ-48 With Drive Test Module Board ULN2003 5Line 4Phase Kit | eBay

5 Line 4 phase can be driven by ordinary uln2003 chip can also be connected in phase 2 development board used for. Stepper motor driver board with ULN2003. 1 ULN2003 Drive Test Module Board. This board motor kit supports you to use a direct plug and make it easy to use stepper motor used in the development board.

CAM-GCode software

G-code generators

A) grbl-controller 3.0
Grbl Controller sends GCode to CNC machines. Version 3.0 is has been optimized for the Arduino to control Grbl shields. Grbl Controller can use the QextSerialPort library to simplify choosing the correct USB serial port.

B) Makercam
MakerCAM is a web based CAM program. Simple by design, MakerCAM allows you to produce toolpaths for 3-axis CNC machines that accept standard RS274D GCode.
link: Getting started tutorial
link: about makercam

C) Easy cnc
The goal of the project is the realization of a modular firmware that allows to control a CNC machine with different utensils.

D) cnc-masteryou
A small program to quickly generate GCode. It can generate circular pockets, square pockets, etc. Now you can generate a simple program from DXF.
Use the tab “Cutting a path” or “Array of elements”. Added engraving by DXF file.

E) gcodetools – inkscape plugin

F) JSCUT – a cam in your browser

G) benbox

—————————————————————————————–

G-code senders

A) Universal g-code sender
AA) Universal g-code sender SHAPEOKO

B)  Chilipeppr – read the github information

 

GCode Ripper Wrap GCode for 4th Axis or do Engraving on Irregular Surfaces after Probing
LinuxCNC / EMC2 Free CNC Control Software
Jedicut CNC Foam Cutting
Ace Converter DXF to G-Code
2linc Engraving Software: Light Version Engraving Software
and fonts
DeskEngrave Engraving Software
Image to G-Code Image or bitmap to g-code
MaxCut Nesting

 

misc
grbl on python: pyGerber2Gcode
3 x 4 Pin Dupont Female Connectors
GRBL firmware http://www.ebay.com/itm/Arduino-CNC-Shield-V3-10-G…

Pi Cap – Bare Conductive

The Pi Cap adds precise capacitive touch, proximity sensing and high quality audio to your Raspberry Pi.

Connect your Pi project to the physical world. Create sensors by connecting Electric Paint or anything conductive  to one of the Pi Cap’s 12 electrodes to control audio, video or connect to the internet. Make a MIDI piano, an  interactive wall, a proximity sensor — you decide. Our Raspbian package contains code examples for C++, Python  and Node.js.

• Capacitive touch and distance sensing
• High quality audio output
• Tutorials to help you get started
• User-­programmable RGB LED
• Multi function button
• Prototyping area with GPIO breakout
• Compatible with Raspberry Pi A+, B+, Zero (or any Pi with  40 pin GPIO connector)
• Powerful C++, Python and Node.js libraries and examples

Works with:
Crocodile clips, copper tape,  solder and e­‐textiles. Use with Electric Paint to design your own sensors

PI 123 instructions

16 Channel PWM Expansion Board

Control Servos + PWM devices using this 16 channel PWM Expansion Board. PCA9685

When you run out of PWM Arduino-pins or are on a Raspberry Pi that doesn’t have PWM capability. With this PWM Expansion Board you can control up to 16 PWM driven devices from via 2 I2C pins. Can also be daisy-chained to give you up to 992 PWM outputs.

Features:

  • I2C controlled PWM/Servo driver board
  • Clock on board
  • Operating Voltage: 3.3V – 6V
  • 6 I2C Address Select Pins
  • Max Daisy-chaining: 62 boards for a total of 992 PWM outputs
  • Max PWM frequency: 1.6 kHz
  • Resolution: 12 bit
  • Configurable Output (push-pull or open-drain)
  • Output Enable (OE) allows you to turn off all outputs at once
  • Onboard Features:
    • Polarity Protection
    • Power Indicator LED
    • Optional capacitor solder point for smoothing
      • Address Select Jumpers

GRBL workflow – Arduino

INSTALL WORKFLOW using an arduino uno and an arduino cnc shield:

1) Grbl is a motion control GCode Interpreter. The controller is written in highly optimized C to achieve precise timing and asynchronous operation. It is able to maintain up to 30kHz of stable, jitter free control pulses.
download GRBL 1.1 here

2) Flash the file to the arduino in various ways:
compile in the Arduino IDE
— download  the Arduino IDE for mac – pc – linux

____

get inspired from some nice examples from the original author

____

Protoneer directions for customized GRBL

 

 

STEPPER MOTOR BASICS

Stepper Motor Basics

A stepper motor is a brushless, synchronous electric motor that converts digital pulses into mechanical shaft rotations. Each rotation of a stepper motor is divided into a set number of steps, sometimes as many as 200 steps. The stepper motor must be sent a separate pulse for each step. The stepper motor can only receive one pulse and take one step at a time and each step must be the same length. Since each pulse results in the motor rotating a precise angle — typically 1.8 degrees — you can precisely control the position of the stepper motor without any feedback mechanism.

As the digital pulses from the controller increase in frequency, the stepping movement converts into a continuous rotation with the velocity of the rotation directly proportional to the frequency of the control pulses. Stepper motors are widely used because of their low cost, high reliability, and high torque at low speeds. Their rugged construction enables you to use stepper motors in a wide environmental range.

Advantages of Using Stepper Motors

  • A wide range of rotational speeds can be utilized since the speed of a step motor is proportional to the frequency of the input pulses from your controller.
  • Precise open-loop positional control is possible with a stepper motor without any feedback mechanism.
  • Very low speed rotation is possible with a load that is coupled directly to the shaft of the stepper motor.
  • A stepper motor is quite reliable because there are no contact brushes. Generally, the life of a stepper motor is determined by the life of the stepper motor bearing.
  • A stepper motor is very good at starting, stopping, and reversing direction.
  • A stepper motor provides precise positioning and repeatability of movement.
  • An energized stepper motor maintains full torque at standstill position.

Types of Stepper Motors

There are three kinds of step motors: permanent magnet, hybrid, and variable reluctance. Hyrbrid step motors offer the most versatility and combine the best characteristics of variable reluctance and permanent magnet stepper motors. Hybrid stepper motors are constructed with multi-toothed stator poles and a permanent magnet rotor. A standard hybrid stepper motor has 200 rotor teeth and rotates 1.8 degrees per step. Hybrid stepper motors provide high static and dynamic torque and they run at very high step rates. Applications for hybrid stepper motors include computer disk drives and cd players. Hybrid stepper motors are also widely used in industrial and scientific applications. Hybrid step motors are used in robotics, motion control, automated wire cutting, and even in high-speed fluid dispensers.

Step Modes

Stepper motor “step modes” include full step, half step, and microstep. The type of step is dependent on the stepper motor driver controlling the stepper motor. Many stepper motor controllers are multi-step capable (usually adjusted by switch setting).

Full Step

Standard hybrid stepping motors have 200 full steps per revolution. If you divide the 200 steps into the 360 degrees of rotation you get 200 1.8 degree steps. Normally this is achieved by energizing both windings while alternately reversing the current, meaning one pulse from the driver is equal to one full step on the step motor.

Half Step

Half Step means that the stepping motor is rotating at 400 steps per revolution (0.9 degree steps x 400 = 360 degrees). First one winding is energized and then two windings are alternately energized. This will cause the rotor of the stepping motor to move at half the distance (0.9 degrees). In half-step mode, a typical stepper motor provides about 30% less torque, but it provides a smoother motion than it would in full-step mode.

Microstep

Microstepping is a relatively new stepping motor system. Microstepping energizes the stepper motor winding in a manner that further subdivides the number of positions between poles. Some microstepping controllers are capable of dividing a full step (1.8 deg) into 256 microsteps. This would result in 51,200 steps in one revolution (.007 deg/step). Microstepping is usually applied to applications that require accurate positioning and smoother motion over a broad range of speeds. As in the half-step mode, microstepping reduces torque by about 30% compared to full-step mode.

Linear Motion Control

Stepping motors are often used for linear motion control using a lead screw or worm gear drive. The pitch of the lead screw controls the amount of linear distance traveled in one revolution of the screw. So, if the lead is equal to one inch per revolution and there are 200 full steps in one revolution of the stepping motor shaft, then the resolution of the lead screw system would be 0.005 inches per step. Finer resolutions can be attained using the step motor and stepping motor driver combination in microstep mode.

Series and Parallel Connection

A stepper motor can be connected either in series or parallel mode. A series connection system results in high inductance and consequently greater torque at low speeds. A parallel connection method will reduce the inductance resulting in increased torque at higher speeds

Stepper Motor Drivers Overview

The stepper motor is controlled by a stepper motor driver board. The stepper motor driver receives step and direction signals from a control system, typically a computer, and converts them into electronic signals which run the stepper motor. One pulse is needed for every step of the stepper motor shaft. In full-step mode, assuming you’re using a standard 200 step motor, 200 steps or pulses completes one revolution of the stepping motor shaft. The speed and rotation of the stepper motor shaft is directly proportional to the frequency of the pulse.

The speed and torque of a stepper motor is determined by the flow of current from the stepping motor driver to the stepping motor winding. Inductance reduces the flow or limits the time it takes for the current to energize the winding. Most stepper motor driver circuits are designed to supply a greater amount of voltage than the stepper motor’s rated voltage. The higher the output voltage from the stepper motor driver, the higher the level of torque versus speed. In general, the stepper motor driver’s output voltage, also known as bus voltage, should be rated five to ten times higher than the stepper motor’s voltage rating. In order to protect the stepping motor, the step motor controller’s current should be limited to the step motor current rating.

Controller (Indexer) Overview

The stepper motor controller, also known as an indexer, provides step and direction outputs to the stepping motor driver. Most applications require that the controller manages other functions as well such as acceleration, deceleration, steps per second, and distance. The controller (indexer) can also connect to and control other external signals as defined by the project.

Communications to the stepping motor system indexer is usually provided through an RS-232 or RS-485 port. In either configuration, the indexer can receive high level commands from a host computer and supply the appropriate step and direction pulses to the stepper motor driver.

The stepping motor system indexer includes auxiliary input/output for monitoring from external sources such as Go, Home, Jog, or Limit switch.

see original

Nema 17 Stepper Motors

NEMA 17 – 12V – four-phase unipolar permanent-magnet stepper-motor
1.8° full step – 200 steps-per-revolution
0.9° half-step – 400 steps-per-revolution

NEMA chose to label stepper motors (e.g. “NEMA 17”) with the size of their faceplate in tenth of inches. So a “NEMA 17” has a 1.7 inch by 1.7 inch faceplate. By standardizing the stepper motors (the faceplates, flanges and screw holes), you know ahead of time that one NEMA 17 motor will fit into the mounts of another NEMA 17 without having to redesign anything. This makes swapping components easier.

42BYGH34
1.5 kg-cm 6 Wire NEMA 17 Stepper Motor – Item no. 42BYGH34-04
12VDC, Rated current 1.3A, 500rpm, Torque 0.26NM, size: 42x42x34mm

17HS1352-P4130 – hybrid
2.2 kg-cm 6 Wire NEMA 17 Stepper Motor
12-24VDC, Rated current 1.33A, 500rpm, Torque 0.26NM, size: 42x42x34mm

42BYGHW609D4P-X1
1.7A – 1.8degrees

42BYGHW609D4P1 Stepper Motor (Makeblock 81042)
Specifications
PHASE : 2PHASE
STEP ANGLE : 1.8+-5%°/STEP
RATED VOLTAGE : 12V
CURRENT : 1.7A/PHASE
RESISRANCE : 1.5+-10%/PHASE
INDUCRANCE : 2.8+-20%mH/PHASE
HOLDING TORQUE : 40N.cm Min
DERENT TORQUE : 2.2N.cm Max
INSULATION CLASS : B
LEAD STYLE : AWG26 UL1007
ROTOR TORQUE : 54G.cm2

 

GRBL

Grbl is a no-compromise, high performance, low cost alternative to parallel-port-based motion control for CNC milling. It will run on a vanilla Arduino (Duemillanove/Uno) as long as it sports an Atmega 328.

The controller is written in highly optimized C utilizing every clever feature of the AVR-chips to achieve precise timing and asynchronous operation. It is able to maintain up to 30kHz of stable, jitter free control pulses.

It accepts standards-compliant g-code and has been tested with the output of several CAM tools with no problems. Arcs, circles and helical motion are fully supported, as well as, all other primary g-code commands. Macro functions, variables, and most canned cycles are not supported, but we think GUIs can do a much better job at translating them into straight g-code anyhow.

Grbl includes full acceleration management with look ahead. That means the controller will look up to 18 motions into the future and plan its velocities ahead to deliver smooth acceleration and jerk-free cornering.

download at github

A4988 POLOLU DRIVER

Pololu A4988 compatible stepper drivers. (A4988, DRV8825 and others) 

The A4988 is a microstepping driver for controlling bipolar stepper motors which has built-in translator for easy operation.

A4988-Specifications

 

 

 

 

 

Microstepping can divide a motor’s basic step up to 256 times. Microstepping improves low speed smoothness and minimizes low speed resonance effects.
Microstepping produces roughly 30% less torque than dual phase full stepping

A4988-Truth-Table1

Arduino CNC Shield V3

Features:

  • GRBL 0.8c compatible. (Open source firmware that runs on an Arduino UNO that turns G-code commands into stepper signals https://github.com/grbl/grbl)
  • 4-Axis support (X, Y, Z , A-Can duplicate X,Y,Z or do a full 4th axis with custom firmware using pins D12 and D13)
  • 2 x End stops for each axis (6 in total)
  • Spindle enable and direction
  • Coolant enable
  • Uses removable Pololu A4988 compatible stepper drivers. (or DRV8825)
  • Jumpers to set the Micro-Stepping for the stepper drivers. (max 1/16)
    (The DRV8825 board can do up to 1/32 micro-stepping)
  • Stepper Motors can be connected with 4 pin molex connectors.
  • Runs on 12-36V DC. (Only the Pololu DRV8825 can handle up to 36V)

Using two jumpers the 4th axis can be configured to clone the X or Y or Z axis. It can also run as an individual axis by using Digital Pin 12 for Stepping signal and Digital Pin 13 as direction signal. (GRBL only supports 3 axis’s at the moment)

Clone X-Axis to the 4th stepper driver(Marked as A)Arduino-CNC-Shield-V3-4th Clone X-Axis

Clone Y-Axis to the 4th stepper driver(Marked as A)Arduino-CNC-Shield-V3-4th Clone Y-Axis

Clone Z-Axis to the 4th stepper driver(Marked as A)Arduino-CNC-Shield-V3-4th Clone Z-Axis

Use D12 and D13 to drive the 4th stepper driver(Marked as A)Arduino-CNC-Shield-V3-4th D12-D13

End Stop Configuration

By default GRBL is configured to trigger an alert if an end-stop goes low(Gets grounded). On the forums this has been much debated and some people requested to have active High end-stops. The jumpers in the picture provides the option to do both. (To run with default setting on GRBL the jumper need to be connected like the left shield in the image below)(This Jumper was only introduced in Version 3.02)
End-stop Configuration Active LOWorHIGH

End-stop switches are standard “always open” switches. An End-stop gets activated when the end-stop pin connects to ground(When setup with default GRBL settings).
EndStopWiring

Configuring Micro Stepping for Each Axis

Each axis has 3 jumpers that can be set to configure the micro stepping for the axis.

Arduino_CNC_Shield_Micro_Stepping_Settings

In the tables below High indicates that a Jumper is insert and Low indicates that no jumper is inserted.

dfrobot LCD 16×2 Shield

SPECIFICATION

  • Operating Voltage: 5V
  • 5 Push buttons to supply a custom menu control panel
  • RST button for resetting arduino program
  • Integrate a potentiometer for adjusting the backlight
  • Pin used:
    • D4-D7    -> LCD Data transmission
    • D8       -> Register Select
    • D9       -> Enable pin
    • D10      -> Backlight control
  • APC&BT pin header for connecting wireless devices, directly compatible with:
  • Expanded available I/O pins
  • Expanded Analog Pinout with standard DFRobot configuration for fast sensor extension
  • Dimension: 80 x 58 mm (3.15x 2.28 in)

(SKU: DFR0009)

Python

brew install python
brew link python
brew install python3
brew link python3
brew doctor

 

rm -rf mydir

python:
PIP
Zelle graphics.py
tkinter
tkinter.photoimage

__________
fd forward
lt left
rr right
bk back

pu pen up
pd pen down
clearscreen
home
setx
sety

TO SQUARE
repeat 4 [fd 90 lr 90]

setpensize
setbackground
setpc
0 black
1 blue
2 green
3 cyan
4 red
5 magenta
6 yellow?
7 white
8 brown
9 beige
10 bright green
11 dark blue
12 salmon
13 blueish
14 orange
15 grey

TO RANDOM.MOVE (D1, D2, A1, A2)
REPEAT FOREVER
LEFT RAND (A1, A2)
FORWARD RAND (D1, D2)

TO CHECK.FORWARD DISTANCE
OLD.POSIITON = TURTLE.STATE
PENUP
HIDETURTLE
FORWARD DISTANCE
FORWARD.FAILED = OUT.OF.BOUNDS?

 

POTS (That’s short for Print Out TitleS.)

NODE

NODE
brew install node
_____________________________________
npm install -g npm@latest
npm i -g n && n latest
(Node package manager)

(nvm install node –reinstall-packages-from=node)

brew update && brew upgrade node && npm install -g npm

1. sudo npm cache clean -f ———— (force) clear you npm cache
2. sudo npm install -g n ———install n (this might take a while)
3. sudo n stable ——— upgrade to lastest version
node -v
___________
You could install nvm and have multiple versions of Node.js installed.
curl https://raw.github.com/creationix/nvm/master/install.sh | sh
source ~/.nvm/nvm.sh
and then run:
nvm install 0.8.22 #(or whatever version of Node.js you want)
you can see what versions you have installed with :
nvm list
and you can change between versions with:
nvm use 0.8.22
The great thing about using NVM is that you can test different versions alongside one another. If different apps require different versions of Node.js, you can run them both.

MicroPython – ESP8266

3. The internal filesystem – MicroPython 1.9.2 documentation

If your devices has 1Mbyte or more of storage then it will be set up (upon first boot) to contain a filesystem. This filesystem uses the FAT format and is stored in the flash after the MicroPython firmware.

ls /dev/tty.*
ls /dev/cu.*
ls /dev/{tty,cu}.*

FLASH
pip install esptool
esptool.py –port /dev/tty.wchusbserialfd120 erase_flash
esptool.py –port /dev/tty.wchusbserialfa130 erase_flash

CD DOWNLOAD FOLDER:
esptool.py –port /dev/tty.wchusbserialfd120 –baud 460800 write_flash –flash_size=detect 0 esp8266-20170823-v1.9.2.bin
esptool.py –port /dev/tty.wchusbserialfa130 –baud 460800 write_flash –flash_size=detect 0 esp8266-20170904-v1.9.2-41-g9950865c.bin
___________

boot.py – main-py

1: terminal:
screen /dev/cu.wchusbserialfa130 115200 (WEMOS MINI)
or
screen /dev/cu.wchusbserialfd120 115200

(initialize:) import webrepl_setup
(assign password) allow acces

2: webrepl.html

_________________________________________________

>>> print(‘hello esp8266!’)

>>> import machine
>>> pin = machine.Pin(2, machine.Pin.OUT)
>>> pin.on()
>>> pin.off()

>>> def toggle(p):
… p.value(not p.value())
(enter 3 times exits)

>>> import time
>>> while True:
… toggle(pin)
… time.sleep_ms(500)

PASTE MODE: Ctrl-E
paste mode; Ctrl-C to cancel, Ctrl-D to finish

>>> f = open(‘data.txt’, ‘w’)
>>> f.write(‘some data’)
>>> f.close()

>>> f = open(‘data.txt’)
>>> f.read()
‘some data’
>>> f.close()

>>> import os
os.listdir()
os.mkdir(‘dir’)
os.remove(‘data.txt’)

1Sheeld

arduino board som lader dig kommunikere via din Smartphone (ios & android)

PLATONIC SOLIDS

Tetrahedron Cube Octahedron Dodecahedron Icosahedron
Four faces Six faces Eight faces Twelve faces Twenty faces
Tetrahedron.svg
(Animation)
Hexahedron.svg
(Animation)
Octahedron.svg
(Animation)
Dodecahedron.svg
(Animation)
Icosahedron.svg
(Animation)
Polyhedron Vertices Edges Faces Schläfli symbol Vertex configuration
tetrahedron Tetrahedron 4 6 4 {3, 3} 3.3.3
cube Hexahedron (cube) 8 12 6 {4, 3} 4.4.4
octahedron Octahedron 6 12 8 {3, 4} 3.3.3.3
dodecahedron Dodecahedron 20 30 12 {5, 3} 5.5.5
icosahedron Icosahedron 12 30 20 {3, 5} 3.3.3.3.3

Cartesian coordinates[edit]

For Platonic solids centered at the origin, simple Cartesian coordinates are given below. The Greek letter φ is used to represent the golden ratio 1 + √5/2.

Cartesian coordinates
Figure Tetrahedron Octahedron Cube Icosahedron Dodecahedron
Faces 4 8 6 20 12
Vertices 4 6 (2 × 3) 8 12 (4 × 3) 20 (8 + 4 × 3)
Orientation
set
1 2 1 2 1 2
Coordinates (1, 1, 1)
(1, −1, −1)
(−1, 1, −1)
(−1, −1, 1)
(−1, −1, −1)
(−1, 1, 1)
(1, −1, 1)
(1, 1, −1)
(±1, 0, 0)
(0, ±1, 0)
(0, 0, ±1)
(±1, ±1, ±1) (0, ±1, ±φ)
(±1, ±φ, 0)
φ, 0, ±1)
(0, ±φ, ±1)
φ, ±1, 0)
(±1, 0, ±φ)
(±1, ±1, ±1)
(0, ±1/φ, ±φ)
1/φ, ±φ, 0)
φ, 0, ±1/φ)
(±1, ±1, ±1)
(0, ±φ, ±1/φ)
φ, ±1/φ, 0)
1/φ, 0, ±φ)
Image CubeAndStel.svg Dual Cube-Octahedron.svg Icosahedron-golden-rectangles.svg Cube in dodecahedron.png

 

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REGULAR TESSELLATIONS

The three regular tessellations of the plane are closely related to the Platonic solids. Indeed, one can view the Platonic solids as regular tessellations of the sphere. This is done by projecting each solid onto a concentric sphere. The faces project onto regular spherical polygons which exactly cover the sphere. There are three possibilities:

The three regular tilings
 *442

Uniform tiling 44-t0.svg

(3)p6m

Uniform tiling 63-t2.png

*632p4m

Uniform tiling 63-t0.png

{4, 4}

Vertex type 4-4-4-4.svg

44
(t=1, e=1)1-uniform n5.svg

{3, 6}

Vertex type 3-3-3-3-3-3.svg

36
(t=1, e=1)

1-uniform n11.svg

{6, 3)

Vertex type 6-6-6.svg

63
(t=1, e=1)

1-uniform n1.svg

 

 

 

Polygon nets around a vertex
Polyiamond-3-1.svg
{3,3}
Defect 180°
Polyiamond-4-1.svg
{3,4}
Defect 120°
Polyiamond-5-4.svg
{3,5}
Defect 60°
Polyiamond-6-11.svg
{3,6}
Defect 0°
TrominoV.jpg
{4,3}
Defect 90°
Square tiling vertfig.png
{4,4}
Defect 0°
Pentagon net.png
{5,3}
Defect 36°
Hexagonal tiling vertfig.png
{6,3}
Defect 0°
A vertex needs at least 3 faces, and an angle defect.
A 0° angle defect will fill the Euclidean plane with a regular tiling.
By Descartes’ theorem, the number of vertices is 720°/defect.

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Zinsser Bulls Eye Shellac

Bulls Eye® Shellac is an alcohol-based solution of lac available in Clear and Amber tones. Bulls Eye® Shellac is easy to use and dries quickly.

Source: Zinsser® Bulls Eye® Shellac Product Page

 

ABOUT BULLS EYE® SHELLAC

Bring out the natural beauty of wood grain like no other finish can, with Rust-Oleum® Zinsser® Bulls Eye® Shellac. This finish beautifies wood with a lustrous glow that won’t darken or yellow with age. The spray format is perfect for crafts and small projects.

  • Traditional finish & sealer
  • All-Natural, non-toxic, easy to use
  • Classic finish for wood trim, paneling and furniture
  • Great protective sealer for crafts and household projects
  • Dries lightning fast – can be recoated in under 45 minutes
  • Does not darken or yellow with age
  • Easy clean up with alcohol or ammonia and water

Bulls Eye Shellac

Find great deals for Zinsser Bulls Eye Shellac Based Clear Sealer Spray Wood Timber Furniture Hobbies. Shop with confidence on eBay!

Akua Intaglio Printing Inks

Akua Intaglio Printing Inks have a soy based formulation for unmatched working properties. The ink will not skin in jar or dry on your equipment, and wipes off etching plates cleanly, while plenty of ink remains in grooves. These inks dry through absorption into paper fibers, and once print is dry, ink is permanent. Only easy, safe soap and water clean-up is required.

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The 19th century gum bichromate process in 21st century concept and techniques « Gum Bichromates « Formulas And How-To « AlternativePhotography.com

Christina Z. Anderson gives us the “why and how” of the gum process, including making negatives.Share this:Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in n…

Source: The 19th century gum bichromate process in 21st century concept and techniques « Gum Bichromates « Formulas And How-To « AlternativePhotography.com

Gum printing basics – how to make a gum print (Troutner) « Gum Bichromates « Formulas And How-To « AlternativePhotography.com

Seth Troutner got so into making gum, he even made his own gum kit – to help beginners getting started. Here he shows how he makes his prints.Share this:Click to email this to a friend (Open…

Source: Gum printing basics – how to make a gum print (Troutner) « Gum Bichromates « Formulas And How-To « AlternativePhotography.com

Painter Paper-textures

 

cyanotype QUICKIE


NB: forbered blandingerne mindst 24 timer før de skal anvendes.
– Opbevar begge opløsninger i brune lufttætte flasker
– Markér flaskerne med navn, dato og blandingsforhold.

DESTILLERET VAND: 21°C
Blanding A: Ammoniumjerncitrat
100 ml (50 ml) distilleret vand ~21 °C
20 g (10 g) Ferric ammonium citrate (green)

Blanding B:  Blodludssalt, rødt
100 ml (50 ml) distilleret water ~21 °C
8 g (4 g) Potassium ferricyanide

Kitchen sink Lithography

Kitchen Lithography:
Rapid, eco-freindly and less-toxic !
Kitchen lithography is fast, and inexpensive.   Most of the materials can be bought for very little and are found in most kitchens. If you have the ink and a press all the better but event  the press is not required.

Material List:
• Reynolds heavy-duty aluminum foil
• Polycarbonate or Plexiglas plate (for stretching the aluminum foil
• Paper Towel (viva is what I uses)
• Tape (for anchoring the aluminum foil)
• 1500 grit waterproof sandpaper (sanding the foil to increase the tooth and surface area)
• White kitchen vinegar (cleaning off prepared foil and making it more receptive)
• Soda/Cola containing phosphoric acid (for etching the plate)
• Korn’s litho crayon (drawing the image)
• Vegetable Oil
• Sponge (for wiping the plate and keeping the plate wet)
• Oil based Etching Ink (graphic chemical ink is what I used)
• Press or Wooden Spoon
• Paper torn to the correct size for the image, any good quality smooth surfaced paper should work (BFK, Stonehenge, Magnani Pescia, ect ) Continue reading

THE BALUTY series

Xerox/Gum Printing

1. Make a fresh xerox

2. You want to make a thin gum solution, so add 1 part gum arabic, 1 part water in a bowl.

3. Coat an area of the plexiglas plate with gum arabic and place the photocopy on top of this area with image facing up. If you have difficulty with wrinkling, lift up the photocopy and re-apply a small amount of gum arabic to plexiglas and lay the paper down in sections wiping it on the top with a sponge dipped in gum arabic to smooth out wrinkles. When the paper is fully adhered give it one final light coat of gum arabic. Be gentle

4. Roll up some oil based ink and roll your brayer over the copy gently. It might roll up with your roller so start from the center and roll to the edges.
The ink should roll smoothly and not be too tacky. You may need to add (linseed or stone-)oil to the right consistency.
Mix only enough ink for one print at a time because it gets contaminated with paper fibres and gum arabic.
Each time you reload the brayer, roll it on newsprint to remove any gum arabic that might be picked up from the photocopy.

I like to give the plate one consistent coat of ink and then remove the ink with a sponge and water. Some artists prefer to apply several very light coats of ink using water and a sponge to remove the ink between each coat. You will have to see what works best for you. Be aware that too many applications of ink followed by water to remove it will eventually break down the photocopy paper which is serving as your plate.

5. You need to keep sponging to remove the excess ink and to keep the copy wet, so sponge, then roll, then sponge, then roll.

6. The toner will appear glossy from ink when it’s ready. Sometimes this is very quick.

7. Once it’s wet, it’s very fragile, so be careful when peeling the inked copy off of the glass. Run this through the press onto paper or fabric under some good pressure. I usually set it on a plexi plate, but you don’t have to.

If you want to start a new print, clean the roller and ink area and any additional ink that might have transferred to your work area or plexiglas plate. Start a new batch of ink. Baby oil or vegetable oil works well to clean up equipment and work areas.
____________________________________

1. Make good quality XEROX photocopies with a heavy, dark-as-possible and well-fused layer of toner. It’s a good idea to make several of the image you want to work with, as they do break down after a few transfers. The best copy machines use dense toner which is fused tightly to the paper; never use ink jet or laser copies

2. Help the xerox copy “age” a bit by placing it face up on a hotplate to “bake” the toner for a few minutes (it stabilizes the toner a wee bit more).

3. Paint a very thin and even coat of Zisser Amber Shellac on the backside of the photocopy; this strengthens the toner and the paper; let it dry. (a sponge brush works well)

4. Use Dan Smith #79 Relief Ink, or G.C.#1796 Litho Ink modified with Setswell; you must significantly reduce the tack and body of the ink or it will lift the toner off the paper.

5. Use a solution of 1/3 gum arabic to 2/3 water. Spread a little solution on a glass or plexi palette; place the photocopy face up on the solution. Pour a little bit more of the solution onto the copy and let it soak in evenly; then reduce to a damp film gently with a soft-hair brush (hake is great) before rolling it up with ink.

6. Roll it up GENTLY with a small soft rubber brayer, being careful to keep the copy damp with the brush (but not wet); sponges tend to abrade paper which then causes the paper to scum badly. If the paper does scum, squeeze a generous amount of the gum/water solution onto the copy; this should dislodge a lot of the scumming ink. If unable to rescue the Xerox, switch to another copy of the same image.

7. When image is charged place inky side face down onto your choice of surface*; you may want to print it directly to paper or offset it to another surface first; either way cover it with fresh wax paper and then newsprint and send it through the press with medium light pressure, or offset by hand pressure with a baren and a bone-folder.

*You can transfer the inky image onto Plexiglas/mylar and work it up like a monotype, or print it directly on to paper (or transfer it to a woodblock/linoleum/copper etching plate/litho stone etc. to be further developed). The image will be strongest when printed directly onto paper, as each transfer process will slightly degrade the clarity and detail of the original image.
_______________________________________

Instructions for Gum Printing
The Ink Shop Printmaking Center 2008

Prepare photocopy – cut exactly to size and shape desired.
Mix 2/3 gum arabic to 1/3 water in bowl.
Apply puddle of gum solution to the table with clean sponge.
Place photocopy face up onto the gum solution, and add more solution to the top face.
Make sure paper relaxes, and wrinkles are flattened, by sponging from the center to the edges of the Xerox.
Add straight gum arabic to the top face of the Xerox, gently massaging with your fingers, especially in the white areas.
Wipe away excess gum solution with the clean sponge, cleaning around all sides of the photocopy.
Ink up the brayer with a light layer of lithographic ink (mixed with a dollop of setswell compound).
Using a light touch, roll over the Xerox with the inked brayer, starting from the center and rolling out to the edges (to prevent the Xerox from rolling onto the brayer).
In between roll-ups, gently sponge the surface with water. Re-ink up to a maximum of 2 – 3 passes.
Place dampened paper on the press bed, and place the Xerox image face down on the paper.
Cover with newsprint and press blankets, and print.
_________________________________________

add to it, some shellac on the back of the photocopy paper and it just prints and prints – plus then one can make extra large photocopies without the risk of tearing
__________________________________________

1 – Apply a thin layer of gum to the xerox and buff off the excess. Allow to dry. It will curl a bit.

2 – Roll up the DRY gummed xerox with ink. This feels wrong from any other litho technique, but it works. The xerox very durable in this state. Apply a thin layer of ink.

3 – Dip rolled up xerox in a bowl of water. This loosens the gum, and the ink siting on top.

4 – Wipe the excess ink and gum from the xerox. Use the corner of your sponge and wipe until all excess ink is removed.

5 – Print.

I find this method allows the xerox to be more durable.
__________________________________________

Do not use recycled copy paper because it falls apart.
mix the oil paints with a drop or two of linseed oil until smooth
____________________________________________

Hi — this is how we do it at the studio in London to make a lithographic transfer–seems less complicated than the previous suggestions but works generally with a variety of artists’ work.

I. make xerox copy
2. almost immediately( important) spray back of copy with aerosol fixative
3. put copy face down on prepared ( prepasoled) litho plate that is slightlydamped with clean sponge
4 put through press litho or etching with sufficient packing to ensure adhesion of copy to plate ( you may want to run through two or three times depending on firmness of pressure
5 remove copy – there should be a transfer image now on the litho plate – you may wish to stenghten any part at this stage that haven’t appreared ( by using standard litho drawing crayons or tousche) but generally you will find all or most of the image has been transferred
6. gum carefully by using intitally a weak solution of gun arabic dabbed on image – dry
7. gum again using a normal thickness of gum arabic -dry
8. process in the normal way one would a litho plate ( can also be used with marginally less succes on stone)

You should be able to print off up to hundred copies. We have used this methos at Lithostudio and at Curwen Studio in London with a number of artists I recall working with Henry Moore, John Piper and Jim Dine using this method.

John White LithoStudio London
_________________________________________________

Cyanotype maskeringer

til inspiration – det praktiske er ikke løst endnu