The fabulous Fibonacci flower formula

The fabulous Fibonacci flower formula

You probably know that nature is crawling with the Fibonacci numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, etc. But have you ever seen a simple explanation for this phenome…

Snap! Build Your Own Blocks 5.4.5

Snap! Build Your Own Blocks 5.4.5

No Description

paulgb/awesome-plotters

paulgb/awesome-plotters

A curated list of code and resources for pen plotters and other robots that draw. Contributions are very welcome. Please see CONTRIBUTING and CODE-OF-CONDUCT for details.

Kodu

Kodu | Home

Kodu lets kids create games on the PC via a simple visual programming language. Kodu can be used to teach creativity, problem solving, storytelling, as well as programming. Anyone can use Kodu to make a game, young children as well as adults with no design or programming skills.

Mindstorms Book 1980

Mindstorms

Seymour Papert’s Mindstorms was published by Basic Books in 1980, and outlines his vision of children using computers as instruments for learning. A second edition, with new Forewords by John Sculley and Carol Sperry, was published in 1993. The book remains as relevant now as when first published almost forty years ago.

Visual programming language

Visual programming language

In computing, a visual programming language ( VPL) is any programming language that lets users create programs by manipulating program elements graphically rather than by specifying them textually. A VPL allows programming with visual expressions, spatial arrangements of text and graphic symbols, used either as elements of syntax or secondary notation.

tekiela art tumblr

Weighted Voronoi Stippling

Weighted Voronoi Stippling

I’ve been teaching computers to stipple. It’s fun stuff. Stippling: The production of continuous graduations of light and shade through the use of small, discrete dots or strokes. In painting the technique is more commonly called pointillism. New! You can now download executables and source code.

Advanced stippling

Advanced stippling

The following information is retained for historical purposes. Adrian Secord has removed his Weighted Voronoi Stippler program from his website. Two other stipplers based upon Adrian’s work and which produce SVG to consider are Evil Mad Science’s StippleGen and http://www.saliences.com/projects/npr/stippling/stippling.html. Unfortunately, there is very little in the way of ready-to-use software packages or plugins for automatically producing stippled images.

Snap! Build Your Own Blocks

Snap! Build Your Own Blocks

The Snap! social platform

SquiggleDraw

evil-mad/SquiggleDraw

SquiggleDraw will create a SVG file from an image, using the brightness to change the amplitude of sine waves. It is easier to look at the examples below to better understand. 🙂 You can use the saved SVG file to print from Inkscape/AI/etc, draw with a pen on a pen plotter (like the awesome AxiDraw), or engrave with a lasercutter (it looks cool!)

Halftone – Wikipedia

Halftone

Halftone is the reprographic technique that simulates continuous-tone imagery through the use of dots, varying either in size or in spacing, thus generating a gradient-like effect. “Halftone” can also be used to refer specifically to the image that is produced by this process.

StippleGen – Evil Mad Scientist Wiki

StippleGen

StippleGen is a free, open source, and cross-platform application from Evil Mad Scientist Laboratories that can create stipple drawings and ” TSP art,” from image files. One of the perennial problems that we have come across in a variety of contexts, including CNC artwork and producing artwork for the Egg-Bot, is the difficulty of creating good-quality toolpaths- i.e., vector artwork representing halftones -when starting from image files.

AxiDraw – Evil Mad Scientist Wiki

AxiDraw

No Description

Turtletoy

Turtletoy

Turtletoy allows you to create generative art using a minimalistic javascript Turtle graphics API. Each turtle can be exported as SVG and plotted with a plotter.

flipbook test

[flipbook pdf="https://flowpaper.com/Paper.pdf" lightbox="true" cover="https://flowpaper.com/images/demo/zine-magazine@2x.jpg" header="Opening catalog..."]

Download Python | Python.org

Download Python

Information about specific ports, and developer info Source and binary executables are signed by the release manager or binary builder using their OpenPGP key.

Download Inkscape

Inkscape 1.0beta2

This is a beta version, released on December, 3rd, 2019. Note that the Windows packages that you can download here will always contain the most up-to-date fixes for the 1.0 code, and are not frozen to the status of beta2.

Vraag – Blender

Vraag – A higher-level library for Blender scripting – BlenderNation

Andreas Klostermann is working on a concept for a new type of scripting language for Blender. From what I’ve seen so far it has the potential to make scripting more easily accessible for artists. What do you think? Blender Vraag is a Python library for more elegant or easy scripting in Blender.

location pc C:\Program Files\Blender Foundation\Blender\2.80\scripts\addons

 

L-py install

lemurni/lpy-lsystems-blender-addon

This project was developed as part of a TU Vienna Bachelor thesis on the use of L-systems inside of the open source 3D computer graphics software Blender. The thesis describes applications of the code prodived in this project for specific use cases of L-system modeling in Blender and specifically to environmental interaction of a growing structure with a Blender scene.

install Blender

Lpy USER GUIDE:

Lpy User Guide – LPy 0 documentation

L-systems were conceived as a mathematical framework for modeling growth of plants. L-Py is a simulation software that mixes L-systems construction with the Python high-level modeling language. In addition to this software module, an integrated visual development environment has been developed that facilitates the creation of plant models.

pip install conda-app (0.11)

conda create -n lpy openalea.lpy -c openalea

JYPYTER

JEG ER EN HEADING

https://hub.gke.mybinder.org/user/ipython-ipython-in-depth-j7y1mszi/notebooks/binder/Index.ipynb
https://hub.gke.mybinder.org/user/ipython-ipython-in-depth-j7y1mszi/notebooks/binder/Index.ipynb

python3 install pi

default /home/pi

wget https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.8.0/Python-3.8.0.tgz
tar xzvf Python-3.8.0.tgz
cd Python-3.8.0/
./configure
make -j4
sudo make install
or
sudo make altinstall

echo "alias python3=’/usr/local/opt/python-3.8.0/bin/python3.8′"  >> ~/.profile


Running on Raspberry Pi : Node-RED

Running on Raspberry Pi

If you are using Raspbian, then you must have Raspbian Jessie as a minimum version. Raspbian Buster is the currently supported version. We provide a script to install Node.js, npm and Node-RED onto a Raspberry Pi. The script can also be used to upgrade an existing install when a new release is available.

Running on Raspberry Pi : Node-RED

Running on Raspberry Pi

If you are using Raspbian, then you must have Raspbian Jessie as a minimum version. Raspbian Buster is the currently supported version. We provide a script to install Node.js, npm and Node-RED onto a Raspberry Pi. The script can also be used to upgrade an existing install when a new release is available.

Timelapse on PI

Raspberry Pi: Timelapse Camera with the PiCamera module

Create time lapse videos using your Raspberry Pi and Raspberry Pi camera. In this section you will find all of the code and everything you need to start your…

Python Script on Github

BerryCam

BerryCam v2 Support – Fotosyn

Once you have entered the IP address, berryCam.py needs to be run as a Python process in order to provide the necessary links to allow the BerryCam iOS app to trigger the camera, provide previews and save files.

ryzentosh update

makecode – micro:bit lights

turtle

Node.js install

Download | Node.js

Node.js® is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine.

use LTS – download & install

webserver

terminal install server: “sudo npm i http-server -g” _ read info

cd folder – write “http-server” to start it on localhost port 8080

node package manager

node packages: https://www.npmjs.com/

npm -i python3 – npm -i python2

One Line Web Server

Start a Web Server With One Terminal Command on OS X | CSS-Tricks

I’ve searched for this three times this week, so I figured I’d better make sure I have a copy of it. Python 2: python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8000 Navigate to the project directory in the terminal and do that command. Then http://localhost:8000 will server up that directory (as in, it’s `index.html` file).

  • Python2: python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8000
  • Python3: python3 -m http.server --cgi 8080
  • Php: php -S localhost:2222
  • Npm: npm i -g serve // serve

MakeCode

Microsoft MakeCode for micro:bit

A Blocks / JavaScript code editor for the micro:bit powered by Microsoft MakeCode.

How to pair a micro:bit mac

How to pair a BBC micro:bit with an Apple Mac

http://www.bittysoftware.com Watch this video to find out how to pair your BBC micro:bit with your Apple Mac.

MakeCode for micro:bit

Microsoft MakeCode for micro:bit

A Blocks / JavaScript code editor for the micro:bit powered by Microsoft MakeCode.

Creative online coding

Multilanguage
Codepen – link
Glitch.com – link
Trinket – link (Java – Python – Blocks – html)

Steam
Scratch3 – link microbit wedo et al
MakeCode – makecode.microbit.org
Snap! – snap.berkeley.edu

Javascript
P5.js – link
Node.js – link
openprocessing.org – link

Glitch

Glitch: The friendly community where everyone builds the web

Simple, powerful, free tools to create and use millions of apps. Watch Video Use more than a million free web apps instantly, or remix to make them your own. Find handy tools for work, art experiments, big ideas for education, and more.

CNC/3D boards + firmware + hosts

BOARDS: RAMPS

firmware:

  • Repetier 1.0.2 – https://reprap.org/wiki/Repetier-Firmware
  • Makelangelo 6.17.1 – http://www.makelangelo.com/
  • Marlin 1.1.9 – http://marlinfw.org/meta/download/

host:

  • Repetier 2.13 – 1.10 – https://www.repetier.com/download-now/
  • PrintRun 1.6.0 – http://www.pronterface.com
    (Mac PC)
  • Makelangelo 7.15.5 – http://www.makelangelo.com/

 

BOARDS: CNC – ARDUINO

firmware:

  • GRBL 1.1f – https://github.com/gnea/grbl/releases

Host:

  • LaserWeb – https://github.com/LaserWeb/LaserWeb4-Binaries/releases
    (Free Mac – PC)
  • LaserGrbl – https://lasergrbl.com/en/download/
    (Free – Mac – PC)
  • Benbox – http://www.electronoobs.com/eng_impresoras_eleksmaker_soft1.php (custom grlb 0.8)
  • RobotLaser – http://www.robot-eyes.com/RobotLaser/Download.htm
    (Payment – PC – grbl 1.1)
  • T2Laser – http://t2graphics.weebly.com/
    (Payment – Windows)
  • Universal Gcode Sender 2.0 – github.com/winder/Universal-G-Code-Sender
    (Free)

 

QUICKTIP: local server

Mac Terminal:

install node.js (https://nodejs.org/en/)

sudo npm install http-server -g

cd til Mappen hvor du vil serve f. eks “SERVER” på desktoppen

og skriv “http-server”
voila!!

http://127.0.0.1:8080/ – http://localhost:8080/

Hit CTRL-C to stop the server

Microsoft MakeCode

Microsoft MakeCode Computer Science Education

Learn more about the features of the Microsoft MakeCode product, and better understand how it can be used to teach every student computer science in a fun, engaging way. Ready to jump into Making and Coding? Find out how easy it is to get started with Microsoft MakeCode.

3D Basic Parameters

Printing size: 300300400 mm

Layer height: 0.05~0.4 mm (Low: 0.25mm – Normal: 0.2mm – Fine: 0.1mm)

Nozzle size: 0.4 mm

Printing precision: ±0.1 mm

Print speed: <200 mm/s  – suggest: 50 mm/s

Printing material:1.75 mm PLA, ABS, Wood and so on

Support format: STL – obj – gcode (.gco)

System: Linux – Windows – OSX

Heatplate: PLA: 40-60 degrees


cura install:
other – Prusa Mendel i3
Tools: Print all at once
File-Machine Settings: 300 300 400 height
Heated Bed check
Change Machine Name CR-10 – ok

Basic
–Quality
Layer height: 0.15mm
Shell Thickness: 1.2mm (0.8 – 2mm)
enable retraction: yes
–Fill
Bottom top thickness: 1.2mm
Fill density: 20% (solid: 100% – empty: 0% – normally 20 is enough) – how strong
— Speed and Temperature
Print speed: 50 mm (- 80mm)
Printing temperature: PLA: 200 C (190-220)
Bed termperature: 40C 45C 50C
— Support
Everywhere (none – touching build plate)
Raft (None – brim)
— Filament
1.75mm
Flow 100

Advanced
Nozzle 0.4 mm (0.2 – 1mm) smaller is finer and slower – more clogging
— Retraction
Speed: 70mm (80)
Distance: 8mm (10)
— Quality
Initial layer: 0.3mm
Initial line width: 100
Cut off bottom: 0.0
Dual overlap: 0.15mm
— Speed
Travel speed: 70 mm/s
Bottom layer speed: 25 mm/s
Infill speed: 0.0mm/s (0 = printing speed) reduce time but less quality
Outer Shell speed: 30mm/s (0 = printing speed)
Inner Shell speed: 0.0mm/s (0 = printing speed)
–Cool
Minimal layer time: 5 sec
enable cooling fan: YES

 

SERVO MOTORS INTRODUCTION

A Servo Motor can be either a DC, AC or other type of motor and includes a device to know it’s position (ex.: potentiometer, digital encoder…).

Inside most Servo Motors you will find: A motor, gears, some type of limit stops that will limit the movement of the shaft, a potentiometer of some kind for position feedback and some integrated circuit to move the servo to a specific position.

A Standard Servo has around 180 degrees of motion. These can be modified to make them rotate 360 degrees or you can buy them already made this way.

The modification involves opening the Servo case, removing the limiting device and disconnect the potentiometer from the shaft.  Once done the Servo will rotate in either direction endlessly since it has no way of knowing it’s position anymore and there are no limit switches to stop it.

Most Servo Motors have three wires:

Black: Ground

Red: Voltage

White or Yellow: Control Wire.

To move a Servo you send a pulse to the control wire.  This process is referred to Pulse Coded Modulation.

Standard Servos expects to see a pulse every 20ms.  Depending on the length of this pulse the Servo will move to a specific angle.

For example a 1.5ms pulse will make the Servo move to the 90 degree position (which normally is the neutral or middle position).

A pulse shorter than 1.5ms will be move the Servo closer to 0 degrees and a longer one will move closer to 180 degrees.

Servos can have a lot of torque for their size and they also draw power in proportion to how hard they are working.  So if you project is not moving much weight than the Servo will not consume much energy.

from:

Control a ‘LOT’ of Servo Motors using a Joystick, Arduino and PCA9685 PWM Module

TUTORIAL Use the PCA9685 PWM Module to control a lot of servos simultaneously! – OVERVIEW We have seen in prior tutorials how to connect and control Stepper Motors. Stepper Motors are great for many projects but can get expensive when your projects needs

Printmaking Technical Info – Kevin Haas

Printmaking Technical Info – Kevin Haas

All handouts are in PDF format for easy download and printout, and you are welcome to use and share. The handouts are updated from time to time, so check back once in a while. I try to provide accurate information, but everyone works in different studios with different materials, so adjust and adapt as needed.

gelatine plate – vers 3

12×12 inch: 30x30cm

January 1st, 2018: Permanent Gelli-Plate

January 1st, 2018: Permanent Gelli-Plate Happy New year! To bring in 2018, we’re going to show you how to make a permanent gelli-plate. It’s re-moldable, mol…

1.5 Cups Glycerin – 3.54dl
4.5 oz (18 packets) Geletin – 127.57g
1.5 cups cold water – 3.54dl
1.5 cups of isopropyl alcohol – 3.54dl

112.64/127.57 = 0.883

3.12

Water alcolhol
add gelatin

Viscosity printing

Viscosity printing

Viscosity printing is a multi-color printmaking technique that incorporates principles of relief printing and intaglio printing. It was pioneered by Stanley William Hayter. The process uses the principle of viscosity to print multiple colors of ink from a single plate, rather than relying upon multiple plates for color separation.

Intaglio

permanent gelliplate – ver 2

160 gram Gelatinepulver
250 ml Vand
125 ml Isopropyl-Alkohol 70%
125 ml Glycerin

1 – hæld 250ml vand i en gryde
2 – tilsæt gelantine – omrør
3 – simre i 10 min
4 – bland 125 ml Isopropyl-Alkohol 70% og 125 ml Glycerin
5 – lad gelantine størkne
6 – tilsæt alkohol/glycerin blandingen
7 – opvarm til klumperne er væk
8  – hæld i støbeform gennem si for at undgå bobler
9 – fjern evt luftbobler med papirlapper

Alice-ART Neue Rezeptur für dauerhafte Gelatine-Platte new recipe for home made gelli plate

Um eine dauerhafte Gelatine-Platte zu machen benötigt man folgende Zutaten: 9 Päckchen Gelatinepulver (je 9g = ca. 80 g), 250 ml Wasser, 125 ml Isopropyl-Alk…

permanent gelli plate – ver 1

Recipe for a non-toxic moldfree Gelli Plate. Perfect for gel printing; the classic hectograph technique for monoprints. No need to cool or freeze. When it gets damaged or too dirty you can easily melt it for reuse. It becomes even better after a while.

30×40 plate

1 – 1 liter glycerin
2 – sugar 250g
3 – gelatine 175g
4 – 600 ml postevand
——–

1 opløs sukkeret i 200ml vand
2 put  resterende 400ml vand i gelatinen – rør
3 hvil 10 min
4 tilfør sukkervandet – rør
5 put i gryde – tilsæt glycerinen
6 opvarm – må IKKE koge
7 afskum om nødvendigt
8 gør form klar
9 køl ned

The Ultimate Homemade Gelli Plate

Finally a good recipe for a non-toxic moldfree Gelli Plate. Perfect for gel printing; the classic hectograph technique for monoprints. No need to cool or fre…

— genbrug
1 – klip i stykker m. saks
2 – micro 2-3 min 900W
3 – si gamle malingsrester fra
4 – støb ny

 

Gelatine Printing

Gelatine printing is a form of monoprinting in which a gelatine slab is used as a printing `plate’ in conjunction with standard water soluble printing inks/paints to create images. Very little pressure is required to make monoprints using this technique – no press is required.

Basic materials

  • brayer/paintbrushes
  • slab of glass for ink rolling
  • paper/ aluminum foil /plastic – for covering the work space
  • removable tape (masking, cellophane, etc. not essential but can be handy)
  • water-soluble printing ink , acrylic paint, (Oil-based inks are not advised.)
  • paper
  • something to print e.g. stencils or flat textured objects: plants, feathers, found objects, etc.

To create the gelatine plate
I use 2 tablespoons of unflavored gelatine for each cup of water – food grade Gelatine –  (It can be helpful to dissolve the gelatine with some cold water first then add hot to make up the amount.) The finished slab should have a yellow tinge. If the gelatine is too thick I have noticed that it is harder to release the paint/ink – weather conditions also effect this.) The plate can remain in the container (if your paper size is smaller than the container) but if you want to use the edges you need to turn it out and make a plate that is about 1.5 cm thick.
For a more permanent gelatine plate substitute 1/2 the water for glycerine. (eg. 6 TBS gelatine, 1 1/2 c glycerine and 1 1/2 c water)

Containers/moulds
Smooth is good as any marks will leave indentations. Try shallow baking tins, Tupperware style containers, trays from op shops etc.  You can make your own shape by building up the edges with non-drying modelling clay/plasticine around the interior edge of a tray or on a plexiglass sheet. The plexiglass will yield gelatine with two flat, workable sides, but the plate must be level and check very carefully for leaks in your clay dams before pouring the hot gelatine. Larger plates may be made using larger containers, in which case lining the bottom with plastic wrap will make the plate easier to remove.

Pour dissolved gelatine into the mould. Sweep out any air bubbles with paper scraps. Allow the liquid gelatine to solidify by leaving it undisturbed in a cool place (refrigerator, if possible), until it is quite firm to the touch.
When ready, dip a knife in warm water and run it carefully along the inside of the mould, then gently get hands underneath hands underneath lift up, keeping hands wide walk your fingers along length to avoid cracking and ease the gelatine out of the mould.

Papers
Smooth is good, thin is good. Use a dry paper. Watercolor papers, especially the hot press ones (Arches is good). Rives BFK, some pastel drawing paper, lightweight printmaking paper, Asian papers, brown paper, and tissue paper. Paj and organza silk pick up with delicacy. Computer and velum paper tend to curl up at the edges once they dry.

Inks
Standard water-based printing inks generally dry very fast, typically less than 5 minutes. This is good because your prints dry quickly however the ink/paint may dry too quickly on the gelatine block. It can be useful to add mediums: gel medium to acrylic paint, textile medium to textile inks, transparent base and extender to printing inks.

Printing
Many techniques used in traditional monotypes are possible using gelatine as the printing surface. Ink can be applied to the gelatine in a positive manner, using brushes and brayers to develop the image. One great advantage of using a gelatine plate is that ink can be transferred fairly evenly with very little pressure and gelatine is an excellent material for transferring details from found materials.

Squeeze some printing ink onto your palate and brayer it evenly until you have a nice thin coating on the brayer. Brayer the ink onto the gelatine plate gently and evenly. (Or paint on with a brush and even out with a brayer directly on the plate) The ink colour should both suit your subject matter and contrast with your paper in order to bring out the most detail.
Place flat textured object/s on top of the inked plate. Gently press down to be sure there is good contact with the gelatine, but try not to tear, gouge, or damage the plate.
Leave the object/s in place on the plate and lay a piece of paper down on top of it. Rub your palm lightly over the back of the paper to transfer the ink. You don’t need much pressure; gently ensure that the paper makes good contact with the exposed gelatine plate. Peel the paper off. The resulting print is called a negative image. Newsprint can be used like a blotter if you are not so keen on the silhouette image results from this step, or have a spare piece of paper where everything excess gets loaded onto – could be useful for wrapping paper.
Continue by gently lifting the textured object/s off the gelatine. You will see some texture imprints which will appear in your monotype.  Lay a fresh dry piece of paper/fabric down on the gelatine plate and run your hand over gently, again to ensure a good contact between the paper and the gelatine. Slowly peel the paper off. This print is called a positive image.
Gelatine has a natural suction to it and ink transfers quickly and easily.  As you continue to work with the gelatine, it starts to give off moisture, which mixes in with the inks, adding fluidity and translucency, resulting in painterly, fluid-looking prints. While the plate can be cleaned and used several times, it will eventually start to break down. After much use, it can crack, crumble, and develop texture, all of which give interesting effects in your prints. These irregularities and surprises can give you the opportunity to think of some of the printmaking session as drawing.

Stencil printing
start with a flat application of color, making layering a part of the image from the beginning. (Use a bit of masking tape to fix your paper down on one end to help with registration) As the image develops and some areas become complete, they can be blocked out with a homemade stencil of cardstock or mylar, and you can continue developing your image on the uncovered areas of the plate. You can cut your own stencil shapes, or even incorporate store-bought stencils into your prints. I like using the boldness of stencils with something more detailed, like fabric mesh.

Printing Tips
The gelatine plate is quite cold when it comes out of the refrigerator and moisture will condense on it for the first 20 or so minutes of use. You may find that your first prints are a little bit runnier than your later prints or you may need to wait until the plate dries up slightly. As the plate warms up, it will become more and more `mushy’ and may start to fall apart. Chilling the plate after 2 or 3 hours of use helps to restore its firmness.
If you tear the edges, just cut away with a knife till you have the shape you want.

I cut stencils out like this – photocopy (or draw) a simple silhouette onto the middle of a sheet of mylar and then cut around the image with a soldering iron. Do on a glass surface. My soldering iron is a textile one – it has a fixed temperature and a fine point.

Clean the plate: you can use a piece of newspaper to pick up extra ink left behind, or use a slightly damp sponge. I clean mine with baby wipes! The plate may look coloured but you can print other colours on it after cleaning.

Experimental Techniques

  • Negative-on-positive, positive-on-negative
  • Printing negative images on top of positive images and vice-versa.
  • Apply ink to printing object
  • Apply small amounts of ink, either with the brayer or your fingertips, to an object before pressing it onto the gelatine plate.
  • Different papers – different types of paper will absorb the ink differently and reflect the technique differently. I like using white paint on black paper for strong imagery.
  • Experiment with different brands and types of printing ink, paints, dyes, etc.
  • Tempera paint is particularly well suited for young children. Be sure that all colorants are water soluble! Many recommend Akua Kolor.
  • Use the plate like a rubber stamp – cut the plate into pieces, ink them, then pick them up and print on surfaces as if you were using a rubber stamp.(It’s easy to see where you are stamping as you can see through the gelatine!)
  • Do a woodblock/screenprint print over the top.
  • Alternative media – try fabric, painted surfaces, wood, egg shells, etc.
  • Gelatine can even be used as a material for relief printing, cutting, gouging the plate. It must be handled carefully, and it won’t stand up to editioning.
  • Pour gelatine onto one of your etching plates to create a flexible stamp.

Gelantine

Gelatine er et naturprodukt af animalsk oprindelse. Det fremstilles udfra kollagen, som er er protein og en vigtig bestanddel af bindevæv. Gelatine kan derfor udvindes fra hud, sener og knogler. Omdannelsen fra kollagen til gelatine består i en ændring i molekylets struktur, som f.eks. vil ske ved opvarmning. Gelatine er i modsætning til kollagen vandopløseligt, og ved afkøling vil der derfor dannes en gel.

Den industrielle fremstilling af gelatine er typisk af hud, sener og knogler fra svin og kvæg, men kan også bestå af råvarer fra andre drøvtyggere (får og geder), fjerkræ, fisk og vildt.

Først foretages en knusning af råvarerne, hvorefter der foretages en grundig affedtning. Dernæst behandles råvarerne i saltsyrebad i flere dage, hvorefter gelatineproduktet ekstraheres (udtrækkes) fra knogler, huder m.m. med syre og så behandles gelatineproduktet i basisk væske i flere uger. Derefter foretages ekstraktion i varmt vand. Endelig bliver gelatineopløsningen filtreret, koncentreret og steriliseret ved 140°C før den endelige tørring af produktet.

Teknologisk har gelatine flere egenskaber som for eksempel emulgeringsmiddel, geleringsmiddel, bindemiddel og fortykkelsesmiddel. En lang række forarbejdede fødevarer som f.eks. kødpålæg, kager, desserter og slik, herunder vingummi, indeholder gelatine.

gelantine er også kendt som husblas for forbrugerne….

RADAR MODULE

– RCWL-0516 Microwave Radar Motion Sensor for Arduino Test and Review

RCWL-0516 Sensor Test & Review The RCWL-0516 microwave radar motion sensor module is a low cost sensor that has been newly added to ICSTATION inventory. There is quite a lack of information on the module online, at least not that I could find, so I’m compiling what I could find and posting it all here …

Gilding Mediums, Mordants and techniques

Gilding: Mediums, Mordants & Techniques

This is an ongoing project as I learn gilding techniques and better comprehend their application. As part of my own experimentation I have used supports that I am likely to use in a real application, 230gm pergamenata and 100lb Strathmore Bristol Vellum.

Overshoot

Take a look at the image of a square next to a circle. When the circle is mathematically the same height as the square it appears to be too small… to counteract that the height needs to be increased slightly so it looks correct to the human eye. This height increase is called ‘Overshoot’.

see great blog by type designer Tobias Frere-Jones that explains Type Mechanics

irradiation phenomenon

Inverting files isn´t always straightforward:

As you can see from the image above when black on a white object is reversed we experience what’s known as irradiation phenomenon, whereby the white version looks 10% larger. To counteract this illusion, it’s important to slightly reduce the overall weight of the logo.

Node RED

install windows:

Download | Node.js

Node.js® is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine.

download and install latest LTS for your system.

 

Check version using Powershell: node --version; npm --version

— v8.11.3

add-ons from vanilla install

tradfri
esp scargill
sonoff
flickr – tumblr – instagram
twitter varianter
dropbox
pi gpio johnny five
SL 03 RFID pi
LIRC
barcode
AWS
aquila
LGTV
Tensorflow
micro:bit
ecolect
wii
wii nunchuck
open CV
node-red-contrib-osc
midi — fail

rss

tts

 

facebook messenger

node-red-node-web-nodes

ifttt

google-action
google-firebase
(dmx – openlighting – artnet)


home assistant

mongoose os
cayenne

MESHLAB

MeshLab

MeshLab the open source system for processing and editing 3D triangular meshes. It provides a set of tools for editing, cleaning, healing, inspecting, rendering, texturing and converting meshes. It offers features for processing raw data produced by 3D digitization tools/devices and for preparing models for 3D printing.

Photo etching using BIG

Photo etching using BIG

Photo etching using BIG

Decagonal and Quasicrystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture

Decagonal and Quasicrystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture

The conventional view holds that girih (geometric star-and-polygon) patterns in medieval Islamic architecture were conceived by their designers as a network of zigzagging lines, where the lines were drafted directly with a straightedge and a compass. We show that by 1200 C.E.

Islamic Geometric Patterns: Eric Broug: 8601400243756

https://www.amazon.com/Islamic-Geometric-Patterns-Eric-Broug/dp/050028721X/ref=pd_bxgy_14_img_2?ie=UTF8&refRID=1KAQP46AC8JR5SB5HGVA

Girih App | Stefan Hintz

Girih App

To create even easier ornaments, than with the laser cutted Girih tiles, I decided to write a specialized App for it. An App has some advantages to the physical tiles: Physical tiles tend to move around a bit, when you release your fingers or add another piece.

Online Girih Tiling Editor

Girih tiles are a set of five tiles that were historically used in the creation of ornaments for decoration of buildings in Islamic architecture. This browser app allows you to:

  • Lay Girih patterns on an infinite canvas.
  • Color and style your design.
  • Export as vector images.

 

 

Girih tiles

Girih tiles

Girih tiles are a set of five tiles that were used in the creation of Islamic geometric patterns using strapwork ( girih) for decoration of buildings in Islamic architecture. They have been used since about the year 1200 and their arrangements found significant improvement starting with the Darb-i Imam shrine in Isfahan in Iran built in 1453.

The Internet of Things Prototyping Platform · shiftr.io

The Internet of Things Prototyping Platform

With shiftr.io the process of interconnecting objects, devices and apps becomes more accessible and less complex. Regardless of whether you are building an interactive installation, prototyping the next connected product or simply playing around with new technologies, shiftr.io lets you add connectivity to your project in the early stage.

kento t-shaped

 

 

 

Plastic Baren

Plastic Baren

This website requires cookies to provide all of its features. For more information on what data is contained in the cookies, please see our Privacy Policy page. To accept cookies from this site, please click the Allow button below.

Tsubaki Abura

Tsubaki Abura – Camellia Oil

Camellia oil is applied to the barengawa (the bamboo sheath on a baren) to keep it supple and prolong its life. The oil may be applied with a saturated pad, cotton ball, or use the palm of your hand. Rub just a drop or two of oil into the sheath, paying attention to the sides as well as the face of the barengawa.

Imported from Japan, our camellia oil comes from camellia japonica seeds. It is cosmetic grade and used in Japan as a hair and skin moisturizer, so it is good for your skin as well the barengawa.

The oil will also protect cutting tools from rust. Apply a small amount to the steel blade after sharpening it on water stones.

Disk Baren

McClain’s Printmaking Supplies

Disk Baren This high tech plastic baren was designed by the famous Japanese relief printmaker, Akira Kurosaki. The replaceable disc has tiny bumps on the surface that apply pressure evenly across the paper as you print. When these bumps wear down after extended use, you can simply remove the old disc and press on a new one.

Recipe for Pure Rice Starch Paste

1)
This neutral pH rice starch powder is made from glutinous rice, so mixing and
cooking it on the stove is not necessary. If your tap water has a high mineral content, use distilled water instead.

1. Place 3 tablespoons of rice starch powder in 1 cup of boiling water.
2. Stir briskly with a wire whisk until smooth. If there are lumps left, pour the hot mixture through a strainer and discard the lumps.
3. Cool before using. The rice paste will thicken as it cools. This recipe will produce a paste that is about the consistency of heavy cream or yogurt.

For a thicker paste, use 4 tablespoons of rice starch; for a thinner paste, use 2 tablespoons.

2)
If you prefer to cook the paste, this recipe is from The Art & Craft of Woodblock Printmaking.

1. Mix 2 tablespoons of rice starch with 5 dl (3½ tablespoons) cold water
2. Stir until smooth and milky
3. Bring 150ml (2/3 cup) of water almost to the boil
4. Add the paste mix in a smooth ribbon while stirring
5. Bring to a boil and keep stirring constantly until the mix goes translucent (about five minutes)
6. Cool, stirring from time to time

The mixture will thicken as it cools. If it is too thick, thin with water. If it is too thin, make a new mixture
but this time make it extra thick so you can add it to the first mixture. Combining the two will give the
optimal thickness.

Nori – Rice Starch Paste

Nori

Nori is very important in the Japanese style of printmaking. It works as a dispersing agent to give the ink body so it will spread evenly over the block. Ink without nori can look speckled when it is printed, often an unwanted effect, while ink with nori prints more uniformly. Traditionally, it is also used to paste the original drawing to the block.

Nori can be used for chine collé, book repair, and everyday paper pasting jobs. It is smooth, has a pleasant scent, and will not stain. Water reversible, nori is acid free, strong, and because it contains a very tiny amount of formalin, it does not spoil.

If you prefer to make your own rice paste, we also carry Pure Rice Starch.

seen at McClain´s Printmaking Supplies

kento registration

The kento is a simple device by means of which the printer insures the register of the picture throughout the printing process. It has been employed for several centuries, and experience has proved it to be the best means for the purpose. The principle is to maintain with absolute exactness the width of the margin of every requisite block by means of two small projections, the kagi (key) and the hikitsuke (draw stop), which are cut directly on the block, as shown in Figure 1. These guides cut on the key block will be printed on the kyogo (proofs pulled from the key block) and therefore copies on every color block, keeping the margin the same width as that of the key block. The printer positions his paper so that its edges coincide with these guides during printing. The kagi is a right-angled guide at the lower right-hand corner of the block; the hikitsuke, a straight-line guide…at a short distance from the lower left-hand corner. To cut these guides, the carver uses the kento-nomi,(a 15mm chisel) the edge of which is strongly made with a wider angle and is perfectly straight. The kento-nomi is held by the grip in the right hand, resting upright on the board with its edge exactly at the line to be cut, in such a manner that the flat side of the tools is vertical to the surface of the board (Figure 2). Then it is pressed down to make a cut about one-eighteenth of an inch deep. After the necessary lines have been cut in this way, the space must be cleared with an aisuki(bull-nose chisel) of large size. The clearing must be very shallow and must produce a flat and smooth surface in order to facilitate the fitting of the paper during printing. The depth required is two to three times the thickness of the paper to be used. In making the kagi, the cleared part must slope very slightly toward the point of the right-angled corner. The hikitsuke is left in the form of a sort of step, the top of which is cut in a straight line. The detail of these two guides can be seen in Figure 3a and 3b.

Re-printed from Japanese Print-Making by Toshi Yoshida and Rei Yuki, c. 1966

PDF

Unit Circle

The primary solution angles in the form (cos,sin) on the unit circle are at multiples of 30 and 45 degrees.

sine cosine

link about unit cirle

 

Dermatograph 7600

Mongoose os

 

Mongoose OS – reduce IoT firmware development time up to 90%

An open source Operating System for the Internet of Things. Supported microcontrollers: ESP32, ESP8266, STM32, TI CC3200, TI CC3220. Amazon AWS IoT, Google IoT Core, Azure IoT integrated. Code in C or JavaScript.

Pl2303ta USB TTL to Rs232 Converter Serial Cable

Pl2303ta USB TTL to Rs232 Converter Serial Cable Module for Win 8 XP Vista 7 8.1 for sale online | eBay

Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Pl2303ta USB TTL to Rs232 Converter Serial Cable Module for Win 8 XP Vista 7 8.1 at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products!

FATCATLAB

http://fatcatlab.com/product/evb/

 

 

SBrick Plus

SBrick Plus

SBrick Plus is a brick that you can place into your LEGO® models so you can control them remotely using a smart device like a phone, tablet, gamepad or even Chromebook or PC.

BrickPi – Dexter Industries

BrickPi – Dexter Industries

BrickPi is a robot kit that connects your LEGO MINDSTORMS EV3/NXT sensors and motors to the Raspberry Pi and program in Scratch, Java, Python and more.

ev3python

ev3python

It is so superior to version 1 that a new website has been created for the new version. Read about the improvements and how to modify your version 1 scripts to take advantage of the new features . Be reassured also that scripts written in version 1 will continue to work with the latest version.

Pistorm v2

PiStorms LEGO Mindstorm with Raspberry Pi Brains

PiStorms LEGO Mindstorm with Raspberry Pi Brains

Products – Charmed Labs

Products – Charmed Labs

New! Pixy2 for Lego Connects directly to EV3 brick Free Pixy2 Lego software block for easy programming Pixy2 Faster, more features and less expensive than original Pixy New line following mode! Built-in bright LED light source Pan/Tilt for Pixy2 Faster than original Pan/Tilt Attaches directly to Arduino with compatible hole pattern Pan/Tilt Kit for Pixy …

LeJOS – Java Mindstorms/EV3

LeJOS, Java for Lego Mindstorms / EV3

What is leJOS? leJOS (pronounced like the Spanish word “lejos” for “far”) is a tiny Java Virtual Machine. In 2013 it was ported to the LEGO EV3 brick.

mDrawbot Kit – Open-source Arduino Robot Platform

http://learn.makeblock.com/en/mdrawbot-kit/

Based on Makeblock open platform, mDrawBot is a transformable drawing robot kit that integrates mechanics and electronics via the easy-to-use software mDraw.

mScara (Cylindrical Coordinates Robotic Arm)
mSpider (Wall-Drawing Machine)
mEggBot (Egg-Painting Robot)
mCar (Drawing Car).

Easy Driver

link to basic setup

and some easy driver examples

Arduino – Stepper library

Arduino – Stepper

Reference Home Corrections, suggestions, and new documentation should be posted to the Forum. The text of the Arduino reference is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Code samples in the reference are released into the public domain.

S8BYJ-48 Stepper + ULN2003 driver

link to instructables

Arduino CNC Shield Instructions

Arduino CNC Shield Instructions

Important things to consider before you begin: 1) Double check the power input polarity (“+” and “-“) 2) Be aware of the orientation of stepper drivers. Please note the potentiometer (pot) on A4988 and DRV8825 are at the opposite side​ 1. Do a visual check of all soldered points on the new board 2.

Arduino CNC Shield V3.XX – Assembly Guide

https://blog.protoneer.co.nz/arduino-cnc-shield-v3-00-assembly-guide/

Definitions

CAD
Acronym for computer-aided design

CAM
computer-aided manufacturing

CNC
computer numerical control: automated operation of a machine by a computer program.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS:

Autodesk ArtCAM

Woodworking software for 3D reliefs, decorative woodwork and CNC machining

ArtCAM | Autodesk

You have been detected as being from . Where applicable, you can see country-specific product information, offers, and pricing. Keyboard ALT + g to toggle grid overlay As of July 7, 2018, Autodesk ArtCAM has been discontinued with no planned future releases or updates.

github scripts

connecting amazon echo to devices + internet scripts

makers musings

Raspberry Pi CNC Hat V2.58 GRBL v1.1 Compatable

Raspberry Pi CNC Hat V2.60 – GRBL v1.1 Compatable – Uses Pololu Stepper Drivers | eBay

Pre-loaded with the latest GRBL firmware v1.1. GRBL V1.1 PWM compatible. (Open source firmware that turns G-code commands into stepper signals). Uses removable Pololu A4988 compatible stepper drivers.

DRV8825 Stepper Motor Driver Module

The DRV8825 stepper motor driver carrier is a breakout board for TI’s DRV8825 microstepping bipolar stepper motor driver. The module has a pinout and interface that are nearly identical to those of our A4988 stepper motor driver module, so it can be used as a higher-performance drop-in replacement for those boards in many applications. The DRV8825 features adjustable current limiting, overcurrent and overtemperature protection, and six microstep resolutions (down to 1/32-step). It operates from 8.2 – 45 V and can deliver up to approximately 1.5 A per phase without a heat sink or forced air flow.
DRV8825 allows higher resolutions by allowing intermediate step locations, which are achieved by energizing the coils with intermediate current levels. The resolution (step size) selector inputs (MODE0, MODE1, and MODE2) enable selection from the six step resolutions according to the table below:
MODE0 MODE1 MODE2 Microstep Resolution
Low Low Low Full step
High Low Low Half step
Low High Low 1/4 step
High High Low 1/8 step
Low Low High 1/16 step
High Low High 1/32 step
Low High High 1/32 step
High High High 1/32 step
    There are 2 wiring modes for connecting a microcontroller to the DRV8825 module:

Specification

  • Simple step and direction control interface
  • Six different step resolutions: full-step, half-step, 1/4-step, 1/8-step, 1/16-step, and 1/32-step
  • Adjustable current control lets you set the maximum current output with a potentiometer, which lets you use voltages above your stepper motor’s rated voltage to achieve higher step rates
  • Intelligent chopping control that automatically selects the correct current decay mode (fast decay or slow decay)
  • 45 V maximum supply voltage
  • Built-in regulator (no external logic voltage supply needed)
  • Can interface directly with 3.3 V and 5 V systems
  • Over-temperature thermal shutdown, over-current shutdown, and under-voltage lockout
  • Short-to-ground and shorted-load protection

Download

5V Stepper Motor 28BYJ-48Drive Test Module Board ULN2003 5Line 4Phase Kit

https://www.ebay.com/itm/5V-Stepper-Motor-28BYJ-48-With-Drive-Test-Module-Board-ULN2003-5Line-4Phase-Kit-/152733111469?_trksid=p5731.m3795

CAM-GCode software

G-code generators

A) grbl-controller 3.0
Grbl Controller sends GCode to CNC machines. Version 3.0 is has been optimized for the Arduino to control Grbl shields. Grbl Controller can use the QextSerialPort library to simplify choosing the correct USB serial port.

B) Makercam
MakerCAM is a web based CAM program. Simple by design, MakerCAM allows you to produce toolpaths for 3-axis CNC machines that accept standard RS274D GCode.
link: Getting started tutorial
link: about makercam

C) Easy cnc
The goal of the project is the realization of a modular firmware that allows to control a CNC machine with different utensils.

D) cnc-masteryou
A small program to quickly generate GCode. It can generate circular pockets, square pockets, etc. Now you can generate a simple program from DXF.
Use the tab “Cutting a path” or “Array of elements”. Added engraving by DXF file.

E) gcodetools – inkscape plugin

F) JSCUT – a cam in your browser

G) benbox

—————————————————————————————–

G-code senders

A) Universal g-code sender
AA) Universal g-code sender SHAPEOKO

B)  Chilipeppr – read the github information

 

GCode Ripper Wrap GCode for 4th Axis or do Engraving on Irregular Surfaces after Probing
LinuxCNC / EMC2 Free CNC Control Software
Jedicut CNC Foam Cutting
Ace Converter DXF to G-Code
2linc Engraving Software: Light Version Engraving Software
and fonts
DeskEngrave Engraving Software
Image to G-Code Image or bitmap to g-code
MaxCut Nesting

 

misc
grbl on python: pyGerber2Gcode
3 x 4 Pin Dupont Female Connectors
GRBL firmware http://www.ebay.com/itm/Arduino-CNC-Shield-V3-10-G…

Pi Cap – Bare Conductive

The Pi Cap adds precise capacitive touch, proximity sensing and high quality audio to your Raspberry Pi.

Connect your Pi project to the physical world. Create sensors by connecting Electric Paint or anything conductive  to one of the Pi Cap’s 12 electrodes to control audio, video or connect to the internet. Make a MIDI piano, an  interactive wall, a proximity sensor — you decide. Our Raspbian package contains code examples for C++, Python  and Node.js.

• Capacitive touch and distance sensing
• High quality audio output
• Tutorials to help you get started
• User-­programmable RGB LED
• Multi function button
• Prototyping area with GPIO breakout
• Compatible with Raspberry Pi A+, B+, Zero (or any Pi with  40 pin GPIO connector)
• Powerful C++, Python and Node.js libraries and examples

Works with:
Crocodile clips, copper tape,  solder and e­‐textiles. Use with Electric Paint to design your own sensors

PI 123 instructions

16 Channel PWM Expansion Board

Control Servos + PWM devices using this 16 channel PWM Expansion Board. PCA9685

When you run out of PWM Arduino-pins or are on a Raspberry Pi that doesn’t have PWM capability. With this PWM Expansion Board you can control up to 16 PWM driven devices from via 2 I2C pins. Can also be daisy-chained to give you up to 992 PWM outputs.

Features:

  • I2C controlled PWM/Servo driver board
  • Clock on board
  • Operating Voltage: 3.3V – 6V
  • 6 I2C Address Select Pins
  • Max Daisy-chaining: 62 boards for a total of 992 PWM outputs
  • Max PWM frequency: 1.6 kHz
  • Resolution: 12 bit
  • Configurable Output (push-pull or open-drain)
  • Output Enable (OE) allows you to turn off all outputs at once
  • Onboard Features:
    • Polarity Protection
    • Power Indicator LED
    • Optional capacitor solder point for smoothing
      • Address Select Jumpers

Control a ‘LOT’ of Servo Motors using a Joystick, Arduino and PCA9685 PWM Module – Tutorial

Visit https://brainy-bits.com/tutorials to download the code, library and get more information about our YouTube Tutorial. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com…

A simple method to control upto almost 1000 servos

In this video we are going to see the pca9685 which is a 16 channel 12 bit pwm driver to drive servos or leds . it is I2C : this means that you can control i…

GRBL workflow – Arduino

INSTALL WORKFLOW using an arduino uno and an arduino cnc shield:

1) Grbl is a motion control GCode Interpreter. The controller is written in highly optimized C to achieve precise timing and asynchronous operation. It is able to maintain up to 30kHz of stable, jitter free control pulses.
download GRBL 1.1 here

2) Flash the file to the arduino in various ways:
compile in the Arduino IDE
— download  the Arduino IDE for mac – pc – linux

____

get inspired from some nice examples from the original author

____

Protoneer directions for customized GRBL

 

ARDUINO CNC #4: PC und Arduino Einrichten!

Unterstütze mich: https://www.patreon.com/user?u=4444828 Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/DIYDeutschland Dropbox: http://bit.ly/2fCDc7e E-Mail: www.henrikd…

 

STEPPER MOTOR BASICS

Stepper Motor Basics

A stepper motor is a brushless, synchronous electric motor that converts digital pulses into mechanical shaft rotations. Each rotation of a stepper motor is divided into a set number of steps, sometimes as many as 200 steps. The stepper motor must be sent a separate pulse for each step. The stepper motor can only receive one pulse and take one step at a time and each step must be the same length. Since each pulse results in the motor rotating a precise angle — typically 1.8 degrees — you can precisely control the position of the stepper motor without any feedback mechanism.

As the digital pulses from the controller increase in frequency, the stepping movement converts into a continuous rotation with the velocity of the rotation directly proportional to the frequency of the control pulses. Stepper motors are widely used because of their low cost, high reliability, and high torque at low speeds. Their rugged construction enables you to use stepper motors in a wide environmental range.

Advantages of Using Stepper Motors

  • A wide range of rotational speeds can be utilized since the speed of a step motor is proportional to the frequency of the input pulses from your controller.
  • Precise open-loop positional control is possible with a stepper motor without any feedback mechanism.
  • Very low speed rotation is possible with a load that is coupled directly to the shaft of the stepper motor.
  • A stepper motor is quite reliable because there are no contact brushes. Generally, the life of a stepper motor is determined by the life of the stepper motor bearing.
  • A stepper motor is very good at starting, stopping, and reversing direction.
  • A stepper motor provides precise positioning and repeatability of movement.
  • An energized stepper motor maintains full torque at standstill position.

Types of Stepper Motors

There are three kinds of step motors: permanent magnet, hybrid, and variable reluctance. Hyrbrid step motors offer the most versatility and combine the best characteristics of variable reluctance and permanent magnet stepper motors. Hybrid stepper motors are constructed with multi-toothed stator poles and a permanent magnet rotor. A standard hybrid stepper motor has 200 rotor teeth and rotates 1.8 degrees per step. Hybrid stepper motors provide high static and dynamic torque and they run at very high step rates. Applications for hybrid stepper motors include computer disk drives and cd players. Hybrid stepper motors are also widely used in industrial and scientific applications. Hybrid step motors are used in robotics, motion control, automated wire cutting, and even in high-speed fluid dispensers.

Step Modes

Stepper motor “step modes” include full step, half step, and microstep. The type of step is dependent on the stepper motor driver controlling the stepper motor. Many stepper motor controllers are multi-step capable (usually adjusted by switch setting).

Full Step

Standard hybrid stepping motors have 200 full steps per revolution. If you divide the 200 steps into the 360 degrees of rotation you get 200 1.8 degree steps. Normally this is achieved by energizing both windings while alternately reversing the current, meaning one pulse from the driver is equal to one full step on the step motor.

Half Step

Half Step means that the stepping motor is rotating at 400 steps per revolution (0.9 degree steps x 400 = 360 degrees). First one winding is energized and then two windings are alternately energized. This will cause the rotor of the stepping motor to move at half the distance (0.9 degrees). In half-step mode, a typical stepper motor provides about 30% less torque, but it provides a smoother motion than it would in full-step mode.

Microstep

Microstepping is a relatively new stepping motor system. Microstepping energizes the stepper motor winding in a manner that further subdivides the number of positions between poles. Some microstepping controllers are capable of dividing a full step (1.8 deg) into 256 microsteps. This would result in 51,200 steps in one revolution (.007 deg/step). Microstepping is usually applied to applications that require accurate positioning and smoother motion over a broad range of speeds. As in the half-step mode, microstepping reduces torque by about 30% compared to full-step mode.

Linear Motion Control

Stepping motors are often used for linear motion control using a lead screw or worm gear drive. The pitch of the lead screw controls the amount of linear distance traveled in one revolution of the screw. So, if the lead is equal to one inch per revolution and there are 200 full steps in one revolution of the stepping motor shaft, then the resolution of the lead screw system would be 0.005 inches per step. Finer resolutions can be attained using the step motor and stepping motor driver combination in microstep mode.

Series and Parallel Connection

A stepper motor can be connected either in series or parallel mode. A series connection system results in high inductance and consequently greater torque at low speeds. A parallel connection method will reduce the inductance resulting in increased torque at higher speeds

Stepper Motor Drivers Overview

The stepper motor is controlled by a stepper motor driver board. The stepper motor driver receives step and direction signals from a control system, typically a computer, and converts them into electronic signals which run the stepper motor. One pulse is needed for every step of the stepper motor shaft. In full-step mode, assuming you’re using a standard 200 step motor, 200 steps or pulses completes one revolution of the stepping motor shaft. The speed and rotation of the stepper motor shaft is directly proportional to the frequency of the pulse.

The speed and torque of a stepper motor is determined by the flow of current from the stepping motor driver to the stepping motor winding. Inductance reduces the flow or limits the time it takes for the current to energize the winding. Most stepper motor driver circuits are designed to supply a greater amount of voltage than the stepper motor’s rated voltage. The higher the output voltage from the stepper motor driver, the higher the level of torque versus speed. In general, the stepper motor driver’s output voltage, also known as bus voltage, should be rated five to ten times higher than the stepper motor’s voltage rating. In order to protect the stepping motor, the step motor controller’s current should be limited to the step motor current rating.

Controller (Indexer) Overview

The stepper motor controller, also known as an indexer, provides step and direction outputs to the stepping motor driver. Most applications require that the controller manages other functions as well such as acceleration, deceleration, steps per second, and distance. The controller (indexer) can also connect to and control other external signals as defined by the project.

Communications to the stepping motor system indexer is usually provided through an RS-232 or RS-485 port. In either configuration, the indexer can receive high level commands from a host computer and supply the appropriate step and direction pulses to the stepper motor driver.

The stepping motor system indexer includes auxiliary input/output for monitoring from external sources such as Go, Home, Jog, or Limit switch.

see original