sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install linux-image-ev3dev-ev3
Connecting to the internet over bluetooth: (to save battery)
link at ev3-dev
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install linux-image-ev3dev-ev3
Connecting to the internet over bluetooth: (to save battery)
link at ev3-dev
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chine-collé is a special technique in printmaking in which the image is transferred to a surface that is bonded to a heavier support in the printing process. One purpose is to allow the printmaker to print on a much more delicate surface, such as Japanese paper or linen, which pulls finer details off the plate. Another purpose is to provide a background color behind the image that is different from the surrounding backing sheet.
The final image will depend on the design and ink color of the printed image, the color and opacity of the paper to which the image is directly printed (plus any inclusions such as petals or fibers in that paper), and the color of the backing sheet.
In the typical “direct print” method, the plate is inked, the thin paper (dampened) is placed on the inked plate and trimmed to size, paste is applied to the thin paper, and the ensemble (plate plus thin paper with paste) is placed on a dampened backing sheet. Then, this is run through a printing press. In the pressure of the press, the ink is transferred to the thin paper, and the thinner paper is simultaneously adhered to the backing paper. An advantage of this method is that the thin paper will be exactly the desired size, since it is trimmed to size and then quickly affixed in place.
In the typical “pre-pasted” method, the thin paper (dry) is trimmed to the size of the plate. Then, paste is applied and allowed to dry. When the printmaker is ready to print, the paper is dampened to activate the paste and placed, paste-side up, on an inked plate. Then, the ensemble (plate plus thin paper with paste) is placed on a dampened backing sheet and run through a press as described above. An advantage of the pre-pasted method is that once dried, the paste-applied papers can be stored indefinitely, just like a lick-and-stick postage stamp. A disadvantage of this method is that because the paper is trimmed dry, the artist must take into account how much in each direction the paper will expand when it is dampened prior to printing.
Some artists have moved away from precise trimming of a single sheet of paper to the size of the printing plate when using this method. For example, some experiment with pre-cut shapes for a collage effect. Or simlutaneously adhere multiple overlapping pieces of paper under the printed image.
A more traditional paper choice would be a fine paper made from gampi fiber. Some artists experiment with non-traditional papers, using such things as newspaper, ephermera, dress patterns, and book pages as the sheet to be printed on.
Chine-collé is sometimes mistakenly used to refer to any type of collage.
Chine-collé roughly translates from French, chine = tissue and collé meaning glue or paste. “Chine” because the thin paper traditionally used in the process was imported to Europe from China, India and/or Japan.
There is some variation in adhesives used for Chine-collé. Some artists are reported to use a dusting of flour right before pressing rather than paste. Some have tried using no adhesive at all, simply relying on the high pressure of the printing press and properties of the paper (fibers, sizing) to fuse the papers together similar to paper-making; however, this method may be variable and unreliable. More recently, some artists have turned to adhesives such as PVA glue or gel medium rather than paste.
In traditional paste-making for Chine-collé, wheat or rice starch is separated away from gluten and other things in wheat or rice flour. Then, pure starch is cooked with distilled water to form a congealed gel. Finally, the gel is passed through a fine sieve such as a piece of silk to form the paste. Starch-based pastes are considered archival and are sometimes used in other paper-based applications, such as book binding, book repair and collage.
Chine Collé 
Chine Colle was developed by nineteenth-century printers as a way to use thin Chinese and Japanese papers without employing Asian mounting techniques. The term comes from French: chine means “Chinese” and colle means “glue”.
In chine colle the paper to be printed is backed with a water soluble glue before its face is laid on an inked plate on the press bed. Then a stronger dampened paper is laid over the pasted sheet. When the press is run, the thin paper is adhered to the backing paper and printed simultaneously.
Prepare your glue. There should be Methyl Cellulose PVA 1:1 mixture in the lab, if it is not free flowing (not soupy/some body) add a little water .
Choose your chine colle material. Most anything will work as long as it is a lighter weight than your backing paper. Keep in mind that paper stretches when it is wet, and when it is run through a press. If your chine colle material is of the non-stretchy kind, you may get some buckling when the print dries and shrinks. If you let your print dry between blotters or on the taping wall you might minimize this. But don’t let it stop you from experimenting.
Paste up your chine colle pieces. You can either pre-cut your pieces, then glue them, or glue entire sheets of paper and cut the shapes you want once the glue dries. Using a stiff brush, apply the paste to the back of your chine colle piece on a sheet of waxed paper. Start gluing in the center of the piece and work your way out. Be careful not to get glue on the side that will be printed.
Let it dry on the sheet of waxed paper. This is important. You don’t want to use this wet, or the glue may squish under the pressure of the rollers and run all over.
When you are ready to print, all plates are in place on the press and backing paper is ready, peel the chine colle piece off the waxed paper. Yank off any loose strands of glue, squirt the glued side once or twice with a water spray bottle and place the piece, glued side up, where you want it on your plate. Register your printing paper, place newsprint behind that, then print. It is important to use newsprint to protect the blankets from getting impregnated with glue.
Lift off your print slowly and admire your perfectly chine colled creation.
Once your print dries, if your chine colle is not sticking or comes up for some reason, you can try ironing the back of the print with steam. The steam will help reconstitute the glue and adhere it to the paper.
A collagraph print is created by printing a plate possessing the inked matrix of collaged, relatively flat materials, which allow the replication of a variety of lines, textures and images. This is achieved by building up layers of low-relief patterns through a mix of modeling media, found, flat objects and exposed photopolymer emulsion. Once sealed and dry, the plate surface can be inked and the image transferred to paper.
The basic methods used to make a collagraph print plate may be described as additive and subtractive processes. The primary additive method, where this processes receives its namesake, involves creating a collage by gluing thin, found objects of various shapes, sizes, and textures to a base plate. Lines and textures may be created by painting a plate surface with modeling material such as acrylic gel, white glue, modeling paste, gesso, or adhering a grit with these materials. The subtractive collagraph process involves adhering a fine fabric like silk to the plate then subtracting the areas that will hold ink by painting out the “light” areas with acrylic medium.
Materials & Tools
Basic materials for collagraph are modeling and adhesive mediums, found 2-d textures and lines, a plate of solid cardboard, matboard, thin hardboard (such as Masonite), or plywood for additional support. Other materials like sheet plastic or metal can be used as a plate. Whatever is used, make certain that the chosen plate material will allow materials to adhere to its surface.
Basic tools include those used for cutting and carving materials, scoring lines, and cutting outlines of shapes. Synthetic brushes and palette knives are needed to spread and/or build lines and textures from the chosen medium upon the collagraph plate. Sandpaper is also useful in reducing and altering the dry plate surface.
To Print Intaglio
To Print Relief
*For printing by hand, place paper onto the plate and burnish from the back with a barren, wooden spoon, or other burnishing tool as in printing a linocut.
When you make your collagraph plate it will have to be constructed so that it is very thin, even when materials are glued onto it. Really thin kinds of material are, for example, sifted sand, leaves, fabric and rags, thread, torn papers and tin foil. It is very important to limit the thickness of the textures on the collagraph plate, especially if you intend to print them as relief prints. Seeds, beans and sticks, for example, will cause printing problems, as the press will have to accommodate this thickness yet still force the paper down into the grooves of the texture to connect the ink.
A plate may be constructed entirely of collagraph paste. Even finger textures translate into fascinating impasto effects.
If your class is working with time constraints (and if you want to eliminate one messy step from the process) you can cut down on the drying time of the plates by covering them with thin tin foil instead of varnish. Simply spread contact adhesive in a thin layer over the plate as well as on the matt side of the foil. Allow to dry for a while. Place the foil on the plate with the glue sides together and wrap the foil over the edges of the plate. Then run this through the etching press so that the foil moulds itself around the texture of the plate. This process is recommended for heavily textured plates especially.
You can use fine sifted sand very effectively to simulate intaglio aquatint effects. Spread wood glue wherever you want shadow in the image. Then sprinkle the sand over this area. When the glue is dry, shake away the excess sand. It is recommended that you use the varnish sealing method on these plates, rather than the tin foil method described above.
When printing a collagraph as an intaglio print make sure that the ink is soft enough. It should be considerably runnier than for intaglio and linocut printing.
In order to print a thick plate through the press you may need to run it through a few times.
.After a few runs collagraph plates are permanently flatter, so you should tighten the press pressure at this stage.
1. Avoid using substances which are intrinsically absorbent. These will hold ink which will then bleed under pressure.
2. Wiping scrim or tarlatan, as used in etching, is not really suitable for wiping collagraphs, as the heavily textured surface of the plate may prove too rugged for the soft wiping material. Absorbent cotton rags are more appropriate.
3. Make sure that all objects and surfaces on the plate are thoroughly adhered and sealed with a coat of well diluted P.V.A.
4. Give a sealing coat of spray lacquer or varnish, otherwise the paper can stick to the plate.
5. Mix white spirit with the ink to thin it. The heavy texture of the plate can mean difficulties in efficient wiping, and the most suitable ink is of a reasonably runny consistency. The ink should brush onto the plate and into the intaglio with ease.
Embossment and Negative Cast Relief Prints
Collagraph plate can also be used to produce embossed prints on dry paper from the un-inked plate, and plaster prints (inked plate) or negative plaster embossments from the un-inked plate.
Once all tools and materials are gathered, work can begin in whatever style you prefer. For example, if you wanted to create abstract shapes and textures, you might try stamping a sponge into gesso and then applying various relief textures on the plate surface. For a more patterned work, try using a paper or crocheted doily dipped in media and then transfer the image to the plate. The types of objects you can find, alter, and use are infinite and are limited only by the imagination.
By using found objects this way, images can either be transferred to a plate or the actual object itself can be glued to the plate and left to dry. These types of objects are also
abundant and include fabrics, pressed leaves and flowers, torn paper, and the like. The only criteria to adhering an object to a plate is that it must be extremely thin–typically less than 1/8th of an inch thick.
Each level of applied material should also be kept within this same height limit or undue stress may be placed upon the print paper. If necessary, you can create deeper embossments by incrementally building up layers, much like a staircase. Once the objects or other relief impressions dry and become part of the plate surface, they can be coated with a layer of acrylic gesso or medium to seal and protect the surface.
What remains is a low-relief image that can be inked and transferred to paper. Keep in mind that all plate images will print an inverse (or mirror) image, so this should be accounted for in the design phase. Another bonus is that a plate may be multiply printed in different colors and orientations to create a series of works after it has been cleaned and new ink (or paint) applied.
For more structured works, such as an interior or a landscape, print material or media can be carefully applied to a plate to represent specific shapes and compositions. To create an
illusion of depth, thicker layers can be built up and exact details can be applied by either painting medium on the areas required or by carving away low-lying areas.
Variations include carving into metal plates with power tools or using molten (or a fast-drying chemical) solder to build up relief textures or details. Another is adhering crumpled aluminum foil to the plate surface to create texture. If you try this, be certain to fill the backside of the foil so that it will not collapse under the pressure of the press.
It often takes several proof trials to get the desired effect from a print plate, so prepare for experimentation. For relief works, the plate can be inked and the image transferred to
paper by using a roller. For plates with incised lines and recessed textures, try applying ink, wiping the surface, and then transferring the remaining pigment just like an intaglio
print. You can either uniformly wipe pigment across a plate or paint specific areas as the image requires. As mentioned, be prepared to experiment with different techniques.
FOTOGRAVURE PÅ FOTOOPLYMERPLADER
I fotogravure skabes billedet ved at belyse motivet over på en lysfølsom plade – en stålplade pålagt en lysfølsom emulsion. (Printight KM 73GT) Metoden er udviklet af den danske grafiker Eli Ponsaing i 1990-erne. Teknikken er særdeles præcis, både hvad angår skarphed og tonalitet, og er derfor velegnet til fotografiske arbejder.
Ved belysningen skal anvendes en positivfilm.
Dette kan være:
Positiv lavet i mørkekammeret som halvtonefilm
Positiv lavet i mørkekammeret som rastertonefilm
Digital rasterpositiv udprintet fra computerfil
Overheadfolie fra kopimaskinen
Tushbemalet plast eller kalkerpapir
Tynde delvis gennemlyselige objekter
Pladen udklippes til valgt billedstørrelse. (Dette kan ske i dæmpet lys, undgå sollys)
Belysningstiden kan variere fra film til film (Det anbefales at der laves en test-belysningsrække på en mindre plade)
Belysningslampen tændes og opvarmes til fuld lysstyrke (ca. 3 min.) Beskyttelsesfilmen fjernes fra pladen og pladen placeres i vakuumrammen med hindesiden opefter Positiv-filmen placeres ovenpå med hindesiden (den matte side) mod pladen (Snoren i vakuumrammen skal ligge under filmen op til det ene hjørne af pladen) Vakuumpumpen startes (det tager ca. 1/2 minut at skabe vakuum) Der belyses (For digitale positiver er belysningstiden ca. 20 min.) Vakuumpumpen slukkes Vakuumrammen åbnes og positiv-filmen fjernes Pladen er nu klar til aquatinta-belysning (Aquatintabelysning er ikke nødvendig ved positivfilmen er rastreret).
Aquatinta-belysning er nødvendig i de fleste tilfælde Aquatintabelysningen forhindrer “fladbidninger” i sorte partier, og kan således sammenlignes med aquatinta bestøvningen i den klassiske grafik. Aquatinta-belysningen skal ikke foretages, hvis positivfilmen er rastet.
Pladen placeres i vakuumrammen med hindesiden opefter Aquatinta-filmen placeres ovenpå med hindesiden (den matte side) mod pladen Snoren i vakuumrammen skal ligge under filmen op til det ene hjørne af pladen Vakuumpumpen startes (det tager ca. 1/2 minut at skabe vakuum) Der belyses i 10 min Vakuumpumpen slukkes Vakuumrammen åbnes og aquatinta-filmen fjernes Pladen er nu klar til udvaskning Aquatinta-belysningen foretages i direkte forlængelse af positivbelysningen
Pladen lægges i rent vand, 20° C 1 minut i ro, derefter 1 minuts udvaskning med en blød malerpude Pladen skylles med koldt vand, dubbes tør med vaskeskind og tørres i tørreskabet i ca. 10-15 minutter Pladen efterbelyses 15-20 minutter under belysningslampen (uden vacuum) Pladen tilklippes evt. i pladesaks Pladen er nu klar til trykning (før trykning gives pladen et tyndt lag lugtfri petroleum)
De nævnte tider og øvrige forhold er baseret på: Kviksølvdamplampe HPR 125 med drosselspole BHL 125 placeret 70 cm over vakuumrammen.
Xerotypi eller kopitryk.
Ved hjælp af en fotokopi kan man overføre et motiv fra en bog, en avis osv. til bøttepapir. Kopien indsværtes og trykkes på et tørt stykke bøttepapir. Trykket vil dog stå spejlvendt men til gengæld er der muligheder for tryk i farver, størrelsesændringer og andre eksperimenter.
Til xerotypi skal der bruges flydende gummiarabicum, en balje med vand, tryksværte, en svamp til gummi, en svamp til tryksværte og to svampe til vand.
Kopien kan sagtens bruges igen, men det er godt at have flere for en sikkerheds skyld.
Collografi eller Paptryk.
Tryk kan også gøres udfra pap i stedet for zink- eller kobberplader. Pappet skal være kraftigt og glat på overfladen, ellers vil det suge for meget væde. Arbejdsgangen minder meget om koldnål, da man præger pappet med redskaber, som man ridser med. Man kan også flå det glatte lag af og udnytte strukturen i pappet. Udtrykket kan svinge mellem at ligne en koldnål til en ætset streg eller flade. Pappet kan dog ikke holde til så mange trykgange, og man kan heller ikke rette op på fejl med et skrabestål som i zink eller kobber. Til gengæld slipper man for misfarvning, syrebade, og processen er hurtigere.